I-Accessibility setting

Khetha ulwimi

Yiya kwelilandelayo

Yiya kwiziqulatho

Yiya kwinkcazelo

AmaNgqina KaYehova

IsiXhosa

UVUKANI! JANUWARI 2015

 INQAKU ELINGUMXHOLO | BAQALA NJANI UBOMI?

Imibuzo Emibini Ebalulekileyo

Imibuzo Emibini Ebalulekileyo

1 Ubomi Baqala Njani?

OKO KUTHETHWA NGABANYE. Ubomi basuka nje bathi gqi kwizinto ezingaphiliyo.

ISIZATHU SOKUBA ABANYE BENGAYIGINYI NCAM LE MPENDULO. Oososayensi bazi izinto ezininzi ngoku ngemichiza nangendlela obakhiwe ngayo ubomi bezinto eziphilayo kunangaphambili. Nangona kunjalo, kusenzima ukuchaza ukuba buyintoni kanye kanye ubomi. Kukho umahluko omkhulu phakathi kwezinto ezingaphiliyo, nkqu naxa sele zithelekiswa neyona seli ingantsonkothanga.

Oososayensi banokuqikelela kuphela ukuba kwakunjani emhlabeni kwiibhiliyoni zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Iimbono zabo ziyabethabethana xa kufikwa kumba wokuba ubomi baqala phi. Abanye bathi baqala kwintaba-mlilo, ngoxa abanye besithi baqala elwandle. Abanye bathi ubomi baqala kwenye indawo baza bafika emhlabeni ngenxa yelitye elawa livela esibhakabhakeni. Zonke ezi ngcamango aziwuphenduli lo mbuzo, kunoko zithi baqala kwenye indawo.

Oososayensi baqikelela ukuba kwakukho iimolekyuli ezithile ezazinemizila yemfuza ngaphambi kwezi sizaziyo ngoku. Bathi kusenokwenzeka ukuba ezi molekyuli zavela kwizinto ezingaphiliyo zaza zaphindaphindana. Noko ke, abanabo ubungqina obubonisa ukuba kwakhe kwakho iimolekyuli ezinjalo, ibe abakwazanga nokwenza ezifana nazo.

Izinto eziphilayo zinendlela yazo nje eyahlukileyo yokugcina nokusebenzisa inkcazelo. Iiseli zikhupha, zitolike zize zisebenzise inkcazelo eziyigcine kwimizila yazo yemfuza. Abanye oososayensi bafanisa imizila yemfuza neenkqubo zekhompyutha, baze bafanise iseli kunye noqobo lwekhompyutha. Noko ke, imfundiso yokuba izinto eziphilayo zazivelela ayichazi ukuba imizila yemfuza ivela phi.

Ukuze iseli isebenze kakuhle kufuneka kubekho iimolekyuli zeprotini. Imolekyuli yeprotini eqhelekileyo inamakhulukhulu eeasidi zeamino ezidityaniswe ngohlobo olulungelelanisiweyo. Nayo ke le molekyuli yeprotini kufuneka isongwe ngohlobo oluthile ukuze isebenze kakuhle. Abanye oososayensi bathi bekungangenkankulu ukuba nkqu nenye kwezi molekyuli zeprotini isuke ithi gqi nje. UPaul Davies ongusosayensi uthi: “Ekubeni iseli esebenzayo kufuneka ibe namawakawaka eeprotini ezahlukahlukeneyo, ayivakali ncam le yokucinga ukuba zasuka zathi gqi nje ngamabona ndenzile.”

LILONKE. Emva kweminyaka eliqela yophando kuzo zonke iintlobo zesayensi, inyaniso esamileyo yeyokuba ubomi buvela kobunye ubomi.

 2 Izinto Eziphilayo Zakhula Njani?

OKO KUTHETHWA NGABANYE. Izidalwa zokuqala zatshintsha ngokuthe ngcembe zavelisa ezinye, kuquka nabantu, ngenxa yotshintsho olwenzeka ngesiquphe xa iiseli zisanda nangenxa yokuzikhethela kwemvelo.

ISIZATHU SOKUBA ABANYE BENGAYIGINYI NCAM LE MPENDULO. Ezinye iiseli zintsonkothile kunezinye. Enye incwadi ithi, kwimfundiso yokuba izinto zazivelela, into yokuba kuthiwe iiseli ezingenabugocigoci zinokujika zize zibe ziiseli ezintsonkothileyo, “sisintsompothi sesibini, esilandela esi sokuzivelela kobomi.”

Oososayensi baye bafumanisa ukuba kwiseli nganye kukho oomatshini abasebenza ngendlela emangalisayo abakhiwe ziimolekyuli zeprotini. Imisebenzi yaba matshini iquka ukuhambisa nokujika ukutya kube ngamandla, ukulungisa iindawo ezonakeleyo zeseli nokugcina unxibelelwano. Ngaba utshintsho olwenzeka ngesiquphe xa iiseli zisanda kunye nokhetho lwemvelo lwalunokuvelisa oomatshini abantsonkothe ngale ndlela? Abaninzi bathi ingangumnqa lowo.

Izilwanyana nabantu bavela xa iqanda liye ladibana namadlozi. Emva kokuba kuvele imbumba, ngaphakathi kuyo iiseli ziyanda ize nganye yenze umsebenzi wayo okhethekileyo njengoko zisakha amalungu ahlukahlukeneyo omzimba. Imfundiso yokuba izinto zazivelela ayikwazi ukuchaza ukuba iseli “yazi” njani ukuba imele yakhe liphi ilungu nokuba limele libe kweliphi icala lomzimba.

Oososayensi ngoku bayaqonda ukuba ukuze isilwanyana sivelise esinye sohlobo olwahlukileyo, bekuya kufuneka kwenzeke utshintsho kwakwiimolekyuli ezikwiseli. Ekubeni oososayensi bengakwazi ukubonisa indlela ezivelela ngayo neyona seli “ingantsonkothanga,” ngaba kusengqiqweni ukuba izilwanyana ezahlukahlukeneyo emhlabeni zazivelela ngenxa yotshintsho olwenzeka ngesiquphe xa iiseli zisanda okanye ngenxa yokuzikhethela kwemvelo? Uprofesa webhayoloji uMichael Behe uthi xa ethetha ngendlela ezakhiwe ngayo izilwanyana, nangona uphando “luye lwasibonisa ukuntsonkotha okungaphaya koko bekulindelwe, akukabikho linge liphumelelayo lokubonisa indlela oko kuntsonkotha bekunokuvele kuthi gqi ngayo ngaphandle komntu okrelekrele.”

Abantu bayazazi, bayakwazi ukucinga nokuqiqa, ibe baneempawu ezintle njengobubele, ukuzincama nokwahlula into elungileyo nengalunganga. Utshintsho olwenzeka ngesiquphe xa iiseli zisanda nokuzikhethela kwemvelo akukwazi ukuchaza ukuba zavela njani ezi mpawu abantu banazo.

LILONKE. Nangona abaninzi beme ngelithi ubomi bazivelela, iimpendulo zabo azibanelisi abanye xa bechaza indlela ubomi obaqala ngayo nobakhula ngayo.