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UVUKANI! NOVEMBA 2014

Imisele Yamanzi YaseRoma—Eyakhiwe Ngendlela Emangalisayo

Imisele Yamanzi YaseRoma—Eyakhiwe Ngendlela Emangalisayo

KUZO zonke izakhiwo ezahlukahlukeneyo zamandulo, imisele yamanzi yaseRoma yenye yezona zimangalisayo. Irhuluneli nomphathiswa wamanzi uSextus Julius Frontinus (owayephila ngo-35 ukuya kutsho malunga no-103 C.E.) wabhala wathi ngazo: “Ezi zakhiwo zahlukahlukeneyo ezinamanzi amaninzi awunakuzithelekisa neePiramidi zaseYiputa ezihleli nje okanye izakhiwo zamaGrike ezidumileyo kodwa ezingenamsebenzi.” *

Kwakutheni Ukuze Kufuneke Imisele?

Njengezixeko ezininzi zamandulo, iRoma yayakhiwe kufuphi nendawo enamanzi amaninzi. Ekuqaleni, uMlambo iTiber, imithombo namaqula akufuphi nayo yayinamanzi awaneleyo. Noko ke, malunga neminyaka eyi-300 ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaKristu, iRoma yanda ibe kwafuneka amanzi angakumbi.

Ekubeni babembalwa abantu abanamanzi emakhayeni abo, amaRoma akha iindawo zokuhlamba ezininzi emakhayeni abantu okanye kwiindawo zikawonke-wonke. Iindawo yokuhlamba kawonke-wonke yokuqala kwisixeko saseRoma yayifumana amanzi ayo kumsele ekuthiwa yiAqua Virgo, eyanikezelwa ngo-19 B.C.E. UMarcus Agrippa, owakha lo msele nowayengumhlobo osenyongweni ka-Agasto Kesare, wasebenzisa imali yakhe eninzi ekulungiseni nasekwandiseni imisele yamanzi yaseRoma.

Ezi ndawo zokuhlambela zaba ziindawo zembutho, ezinkulu zinayo nemiyezo kunye neelayibrari. Xa la manzi ephuma kwezi ndawo zokuhlambela, ayengena kwimibhobho yamanzi aze agutyule izindlu zangasese ezazilapho.

Ukwakhiwa Nokulungiswa

Xa usiva kusithiwa “imisele yamanzi yaseRoma,” usenokucinga ngamagophe aphakamileyo ahamba imigama emide. Inyaniso kukuba, la magophe ayeba yinxalenye encinane yale misele, inxalenye enkulu iphantsi komhlaba. Olu hlobo lokwakha lungabizi mali ininzi lwalukhusela le misele ingakhukuliseki ibe lwalunciphisa nokonakala  kwamasimi nemizi ekufutshane. Ngokomzekelo, umsele iAqua Marcia, owagqitywa ngo-140 B.C.E, wawumalunga neekhilomitha eziyi-92 kodwa amagophe awo ayeziikhilomitha eziyi-11 kuphela.

Ngaphambi kokwakha umsele, iinjineli zazihlola ukuba anokusebenziseka na loo manzi, zijonga ukucwenga, ukuqukuqela, nencasa yawo. Zazijonga nokuba basempilweni kusini na abantu abasela loo manzi. Ukuba loo manzi anokusetyenziswa, oonocanda babehlola indlela oza kuhamba kuyo umsele ubukhulu nobude bawo. Yayisakhiwa ngamakhoboka. Imisele yayithatha iminyaka ukugqitywa ibe oko kwakufuna imali eninzi—ingakumbi xa iza kuba namagophe.

Ngaphezu koko, imisele kwakufuneka inyamekelwe ize ikhuselwe. Ngaxa lithile isixeko saseRoma saqesha abantu abamalunga nabayi-700 bokuyinyamekela. Xa isakhiwa le misele kwakusenziwa nendlela yokuyinyamekela. Ngokomzekelo, kwakusombiwa imigodi ekuza kungenwa kuyo xa kufuneka kulungiswe imisele engaphantsi komhlaba. Xa kukho indawo efuna ukulungiswa, iinjineli zazikwazi ukuwathintela amanzi angayi kuloo ndawo.

Imisele Yamanzi Yesixeko SaseRoma

Kwiminyaka yoo-200, kwakusele kukho imisele eyi-11 emikhulu kwisixeko saseRoma. Owokuqala, iAqua Appia owawakhiwe ngo-312 B.C.E nowawungaphezulu nje kwekhilomitha eziyi-16 ubude, phantse wonke wawuphantsi komhlaba. Amabhodlo eAqua Claudia asekho nangoku yaye wawuziikhilomitha ezimalunga neziyi-69 ubude, unamagophe aziikhilomitha ezimalunga neziyi-10, uninzi lwala magophe ayeziimitha eziyi-27 ukuphakama!

Ayengakanani amanzi ahamba kule misele? Ayemaninzi kakhulu! Umsele iAqua Marcia ekuthethwe ngawo ngaphambili, ngosuku wawungenisa amanzi aziilitha ezimalunga nezigidi eziyi-190 eRoma. Xa amanzi efika ezixekweni, eqhutywa ngumxhuzulane womhlaba, ayengena ematankini aze aye nakwezinye iindawo asetyenziswa kuzo. Kuqikelelwa ukuba imisele yamanzi yaseRoma yanda kangangokuba umntu ngamnye wayenokufumana iilitha ezingaphezulu kweziyi-1 000 ngosuku.

Ngokutsho kwencwadi ethi Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply, njengoko uBukhosi baseRoma babusanda, “nemisele yanda.” Xa abantu bekhenketha eAsia Minor, eFransi, eSpeyin naseMntla Afrika basakhwankqiswa yindlela emangalisayo eyakhiwe ngayo le misele.

^ isiqe. 2 AmaRoma ayengengabo abantu bokuqala ukwakha imisele yamanzi. Iintlanga zamandulo ezifana nama-Asiriya, amaYiputa, amaIndiya namaPersi zayakha kuqala.