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UVUKANI! SEPTEMBA 2014

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

ISpeyin Igxotha AmaMorisco

ISpeyin Igxotha AmaMorisco

Kuthiwa zonke izinto ezenziwa ngabemi baseSpeyin ezibaliswa kweli bali libuhlungu zenziwa egameni lecawa. Qiniseka ukuba uyalifunda.

URHULUMENTE waseSpeyin wayefuna ukuba lonke ilizwe lakhe libe phantsi kolawulo lobuKristu lize libe nemithetho efanayo. AmaMorisco ayejongwa njengabantu abangakholwayo, yiloo nto ubukho bawo babubonwa njengento elizothe emehlweni kaThixo. Emva kweminyaka, kwaye kwafikelelwa kwisigqibo. Sasisithini? Mawagxothwe! *

ANYANZELWA UKUBA AGUQUKE

Kangangamakhulu-khulu eminyaka, amaMoors—iqaqobana lamaSilamsi awayebizwa ngokuba ngamaMudéjar—ayehlala ngoxolo kwiindawo ezazilawulwa ngurhulumente wamaKatolika eSpeyin. Kangangeminyaka, kwiindawo ezithile ayevunyelwa ukuba aqhubeke nemithetho yawo, izithethe zawo, kunye nonqulo lwawo.

Sekunjalo, ngo-1492 abalawuli bamaKatolika uFerdinand II noIsabella boyisa iGranada, isixeko sokugqibela eIberia esasisephantsi kolawulo lwamaSilamsi. Abemi beso sixeko abangamaMoors bavuma ukunikezela kuphela ukuba babeza kunikwa amalungelo afanayo nalawo ayenikwe amaMudéjar. Kodwa iinkokeli zamaKatolika zaye ziqinisa ekulitshutshiseni elo qaqobana lamaSilamsi, zilinyanzela ukuba liguquke. AmaMoors awazange ayinyamezele loo nto, aza ngo-1499 avukela. Umkhosi karhulumente wayithomalalisa loo mvukelo, kodwa emva koko amaSilamsi anyanzelwa ukuba  aguquke kungenjalo aphum’ aphele kwelo lizwe. Lawo aguqukayo aza ahlala eSpeyin abizwa ngokuba ngamaMorisco.

“AYENGAMAKRISTU ENKWALAMBISA YAYE ENGATHEMBEKANGA KURHULUMENTE”

Kwathi kusiba ngu-1526, lwabe unqulo lwamaSilamsi lungekho semthethweni eSpeyin, kodwa abe wona amaMorisco amaninzi esaqhubeka nonqulo lwawo emfihlekweni. Awazange azilahle ngokupheleleyo izithethe zawo.

Ekuqaleni amaKatolika akunyamezela ukukhonza ngenkwalambisa kwamaMorisco. Kaloku ayeluncedo kwezobugcisa, ekuchweleni, kwimisebenzi yezandla, nasekuhlawuleni irhafu. Sekunjalo, ayengathandwa ncam ngenxa yokwala kwawo ukuzinikela ngokupheleleyo kunqulo lobuKatolika, yaye ayecalulwa ngurhulumente nangabantu basekuhlaleni. Kusenokwenzeka ukuba oku kwakubangelwa ngamarhe awayethe ndii ecaweni okuba ayengaguqukanga ngokwenene.

Ekuhambeni kwexesha amaKatolika adikwa kukunkwalambisa kwamaMorisco aza aqalisa ukuwanyanzela. Ngo-1567 uKumkani uPhilip II waluphelisa ulwimi lwamaMorisco, kuquka isinxibo, amasiko nezithethe zawo. Oku kwaqhwaya enye imvukelo nophalazo-gazi.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba amalunga ne-300 000 amaMorisco awaphathwa ngqwabalala aza anyanzeleka ukuba emke eSpeyin

Ababhali-mbali bathi abalawuli baseSpeyin babeqinisekile ukuba “amaMorisco ayengamaKristu enkwalambisa yaye engathembekanga kurhulumente.” Ngenxa yoko, ayetyholwa ngokuba azimanye neentshaba—ezingabaphangi baseBarbary, amaProtestanti aseFransi, nabemi baseTurkey—ezazifuna ukungena ngenkani eSpeyin. Ukungathandwa kwamaMorisco kunye nokukrokrelwa kwawo ukuba ekugqibeleni ayeza kuba ngabangcatshi, kwakhokelela ekubeni uPhilip III awagxothe ngo-1609. * Kwiminyaka eyalandelayo, babetshutshiswa bonke abantu ekwakurhanelwa ukuba bangamaMorisco. Yiloo nkohlakalo eyabangela ukuba iSpeyin ibe lilizwe lamaKatolika ngokupheleleyo.

^ isiqe. 4 Igama elithi Morisco lithetha ukuthi “AmaMoors Amancinane” ngeSpanish. Ababhali-mbali babelisebenzisa eli gama ngendlela engathobi sidima xa bethetha ngamaSilamsi aguqukele kubuKatolika, nawayehlala kuSingasiqithi weIberia emva kokubhukuqwa korhulumente wokugqibela wamaSilamsi apho ngo-1492.

^ isiqe. 12 Ababhali-mbali bakrokrela ukuba ubuncinane omnye wabalawuli baseSpeyin wazuza lukhulu ngokuhluthwa komhlaba nezinto zamaMorisco.