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UVukani!  |  Juni 2014

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

UJoseph Priestley

UJoseph Priestley

“Ubuchule bakhe bokwenza izinto ezininzi, ukuzimisela, ukukhuthala, ubuntu, ukuthanda kwakhe ukwazi izinto, ukukhuthaza ukuziphatha okuhle, indima yakhe kwisayensi, kwezobufundisi, kwifilosofi, kwezopolitiko, igalelo lakhe kwiMvukelo yaseFransi, nokubandezeleka kwakhe, kunokumenza iqhawe leminyaka yee-1700.”—ifilosofa uFrederic Harrison.

YINTONI le ibaluleke kangaka eyenziwa nguJoseph Priestley? Izinto awazifumanisayo nawazibhalayo zaba negalelo elikhulu kwindlela abantu abamjonga ngayo urhulumente, nobunjani bukaThixo, nkqu nomoya lo siwuphefumlayo.

Enokuba wayebhala ngesayensi okanye ngonqulo, uPriestley wayezikhaba ngawomane iimfundiso ezikhiw’ emoyeni kodwa wayethanda inyaniso engangxengwanga. Makhe sibone.

UKUKHANGELA KWAKHE INYANISO KWISAYENSI

Emva kokudibana nososayensi uBenjamin Franklin ngo-1765, uJoseph Priestley owayengekho mde kangako kwisayensi, wenza uvavanyo oluthile kwezombane. Kunyaka olandelayo, oososayensi abangoogxa bakhe bamonyula ukuba abe lilungu leRoyal Society of London ngenxa yokwaneliswa zizinto awazifumanisayo.

Kamva, uPriestley wenza uphando ngemichiza. Ngexesha nje elingephi, wabhaqa iintlobo ezintsha zeegesi njenge-ammonia ne-nitrous oxide (igesi ehlekisayo). UPriestley waphinda waxuba amanzi necarbon dioxide, ngaloo ndlela wenza amanzi ahlwahlwazayo.

Ngo-1774 eseNgilani uPriestley wathi esaxakeke lolu phando-ndini, suke, wabhaqa enye igesi eyenza ukuba ikhandlela likhanyise nangakumbi. Kamva, wafaka eglasini iimililitha eziyi-60 zale gesi kunye nempuku. Le mpuku  yaphila bhetele ngaphezu kokuba ibiya kwenza xa ibikwiglasi enomoya oqhelekeileyo! UPriestley naye wayisezela le gesi, yaye wathi “ufumanise ukuba kuye kwalula ukuphefumla okwethutyana emva koko.”

Kwathi kanti uJoseph Priestley ubhaqe ioksijini. * Wayesithi ufumene nje umoya oqhelekileyo, ngelo xesha ekwakusithiwa awunalo ichiza elithile elibangela ukuvutha komlilo. Le nto wayifumanisayo uPriestley yayingeyonyani, kodwa abantu abaninzi basathi “olu lolona phando lwakha lwabalasela awakha walwenza.”

UKUKHANGELA KWAKHE INYANISO KUNQULO

Kanye njengokuba uPriestley wayekholelwa ukuba iinkolelo ezingasekelwanga kubungqina ziye zayisitha inyaniso ngesayensi, wayesithi nezithethe zonqulo ziye zayisitha inyaniso engoThixo. Isimanga sesokuba ebudeni bokufuna kwakhe ulwazi ngeBhayibhile, uPriestley wazamkela ezinye iimfundiso ezigqubanayo neBhayibhile. Ngokomzekelo, wakha akayikholelwa into yokuba iBhayibhile yaphefumlelwa nguThixo ngokungummangaliso. Wayikhaba nemfundiso yeBhayibhile yokuba uYesu wayephila ngaphambi kokuba eze emhlabeni.

“Ukuba isayensi yindlela yokufumana inyaniso, makube uPriestley wayengusosayensi wokwenene.”—uKatherine Cullen osisazi ngebhayoloji

Kwelinye icala, uPriestley wazibhenca iimfundiso zecawa ezazithandwa ngeloo xesha, phofu ezisathandwa unanamhla oku. Wabhala ukuba inyaniso eyayifundiswe nguYesu nabalandeli bakhe kamva yangxengwa ngobuxoki—obufana nemfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu, imfundiso engenasihlahla yomphefumlo ongafiyo, kunye nokunqulwa kwemifanekiso eqingqiweyo, nto leyo engafunwa nokubonwa yiBhayibhile.

Iimfundiso zonqulo nokuxhasa kukaPriestley iMvukelo yaseFransi naseMerika kwawacaphukisa amanye amaNgesi. Ngo1791, iqela elinomsindo latshabalalisa ikhaya kunye nendawo awayelwenzela kuyo uphando, ibe wabalekela eUnited States. Nangona ekhunjulwa kakhulu ngenxa yophando lwakhe lwesayensi, uJoseph Priestley wayekholelwa ekubeni ukufunda ngoThixo nangenjongo yakhe “kokona kubalulekiyo.”

^ isiqe. 10 Ngaphambilana usomachiza waseSweden uCarl Scheele wayeyibhaqile ioksijini, kodwa ke akazange azipapashe iziphumo zophando lwakhe. Kamva, usomachiza onguMfrentshi uAntoine-Laurent Lavoisier wathiya le gesi ngokuthi yi-oksijini.