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UVUKANI! MEYI 2014

Ukuzingelwa Kwamagqwirha EYurophu

Ukuzingelwa Kwamagqwirha EYurophu

KUMAKHULU ambalwa eminyaka eyadlulayo, ukoyikwa kokuthakathwa eYurophu kwakhokelela ekubeni kuzingelwe amagqwirha. Oku kwenzeka kakhulu eFransi, eJamani, kumantla eItali, eSwitzerland nakuMazantsi eYurophu—eBelgium, eLuxembourg naseNetherlands. Incwadi iWitch Hunts in the Western World ithi: “Amashumi amawaka abantu eYurophu nakumazwe aphantsi kweYurophu abulawa, zaza izigidi zangcungcuthekiswa, zabanjwa, zancinwa, zacatshukelwa, okanye zatyholwa.” * Yaqala njani le mpambano ingaka?

Ukuncinwa Nokuhlaselwa Kwamagqwirha

Eyona nto ibe negalelo elikhulu kule meko, kukuncinwa kwamakholwa. Oku kwaqalwa yiCawa yamaRoma Katolika ngeminyaka yee-1200 “ngeenzame zokuguqula abawexuki nokuthintela amarhamente ukuba angayishiyi icawa,” itsho njalo incwadi iDer Hexenwahn (Ukuzingelwa Kwamagqwirha). Ukuqweqwediswa kwamakholwa eCaweni kwakufana nokuqweqwediswa ngamapolisa.

NgoDisemba 5, 1484, uPopu Innocent VIII wabhala ileta egxeka ukuthakatha. Kwakhona wayalela abaqweqwedisi ababini—uJakob Sprenger noHeinrich Kramer (okwaziwa ngegama lesiLatin elinguHenricus Institoris)—ukuba bayiphelise loo ngxaki. La madoda mabini abhala incwadi ethi Malleus Maleficarum, okuthetha Ukuhlaselwa Kwamagqwirha. AmaKatolika namaProtestanti ayamkela le ncwadi njengegunya lokuhlaselwa kwamagqwirha. Yayinamabali aqikelelwayo athetha ngamagqwirha. Yayichaza ukungafaneleki kobugqwirha ngokonqulo nangokomthetho, ibe yabonisa iindlela anokubonwa nanokupheliswa ngazo amagqwirha. Ichazwa ‘njengeyona ncwadi izele yinkohlakalo neyingozi kunazo zonke ezikhoyo ehlabathini.’

Incwadi ethi Ukuhlaselwa Kwamagqwirha iye yachazwa ‘njengeyona ncwadi izele yinkohlakalo neyingozi kunazo zonke ezikhoyo ehlabathini’

 Umntu wayetyholwa ngokuba ligqwirha nokuba akukho bungqina bubambekayo. Incwadi iHexen und Hexenprozesse (Amagqwirha Namatyala Obugqwirha) ithi abo batyholwayo “babenyanzelwa ukuba bavume ngenkani ukuba banetyala.” Babedla ngokungcungcuthekiswa.

EYurophu kwaye kwaqalisa ukuzingelwa kwamagqwirha ngenxa yoko kubhalwe kwincwadi ethi Ukuhlaselwa Kwamagqwirha nakwileta kaPopu Innocent VIII. Ngaphezu koko, iteknoloji nayo yaba negalelo ekusasazeni oku de kwafikelela naseMerika.

Ngoobani Ababetyholwa?

Ngaphezu kwe-70 pesenti yababetyholwa yayingamabhinqa, ingakumbi abahlolokazi, ababengenabantu bokubathethelela. Kuloo maxhoba kwakukho oomakhulu, amahlwempu, kwakunye nabafazi ababethengisa amayeza esintu—ingakumbi xa loo mayeza engasebenzanga. Kwakungasindi mntu, kwakutyholwa onemali nongenayo, ndoda, mfazi, odumileyo nongadumanga.

Abantu ekwakusithiwa ngamagqwirha babetyholwa ngayo yonke into embi. Imagazini yaseJamani iDamals ithi, kusenokwenzeka ukuba “ngamagqwirha abangele ukungunda nokuba kubekho oosinyeke, nemibungu emfimfitha imbewu neziqhamo.” Ukuba kufika isichotho size simoshe igadi, okanye inkomo engakhuphi ubisi, indoda engenanzala, umfazi olidlolo, kwakutyholwa amagqwirha!

Abarhanelwa babebekwa esikalini, kuba kwakukholelwa ukuba amagqwirha akhaphukhaphu

Ayebonwa njani amagqwirha? Abantu abarhanelwayo babedla ngokubotshwa baze bafakwe emanzini abandayo “angcwele.” Xa betshona, kwakusithiwa bamsulwa baze bakhutshwe. Xa bedada bengatshoni, kwakusithiwa ngamagqwirha baze babulawe ngoko nangoko okanye basiwe ematyaleni. Abanye abarhanelwayo babebekwa esikalini—kuba kwakukho inkolelo yokuba amagqwirha akhaphukhaphu.

Enye indlela awayebonwa ngayo amagqwirha yayikukukhangela abantu “abanophawu lukaMtyholi,” ekuthiwa “luphawu olubonakalayo uMtyholi awayelushiya emzimbeni wegqwirha,” ngokutsho kwencwadi iWitch Hunts in the Western World. Abasemagunyeni babekhangela olu phawu “ngokuthi bachebe yonke indawo eneenwele kulowo urhanelwayo baze bakhangele nolona phawu luncinci banokulubhaqa”—konke oku bekwenza phambi kwabantu! Babehlaba ngenaliti kulo naliphi na ibala abalifumanayo, elinjengentsumpa okanye isiva. Ukuba akeva buhlungu okanye ophe xa ehlatywa, elo bala laligqalwa njengophawu lukaSathana.

Oku kuzingelwa kwamagqwirha kwakukhuthazwa ziinkokeli zamaKatolika nezamaProtestanti, yaye kwezinye iindawo iinkokeli zamaProtestanti zazikukhuthaza kakhulu oku kunezamaKatolika. Noko ke, ekuhambeni kwexesha zaye zabuyel’ ezingqondweni. Ngokomzekelo, ngo-1631 uFriedrich Spee, ongumfundisi wamaJesuit owaba negalelo ekutshisweni “kwabantu abaninzi ekuthiwa ngamagqwirha” esibondeni somthi, wabhala wathi ucinga ukuba akukho nalinye kuwo elalinetyala. Ibe walumkisa ngelithi, ukuba akuyekwa ukuzingelwa kwamagqwirha, babeya kuphela abantu elizweni! Kwangaxeshanye, oogqirha bafumanisa ukuba izigulo ezinjengokuxhuzula zazingenanto yakwenza nokuhlaselwa ziidemon. Kwiminyaka yee-1600 ukuhlaselwa kwamagqwirha kwancipha, de kwaphela ekugqibeleni.

Yintoni esiyifundayo kule mpatho ingqwabalala kangaka? Eyona nto siyifundayo kukuba: Xa abantu abazibiza ngokuba bangamaKristu betyeshela iimfundiso zikaYesu Kristu, baze balandele iimfundiso neenkolelo zobuxoki, buyanda ubungendawo. Ibe iBhayibhile yayilumkisile ukuba abantu abanjalo babeya kubangela ukuba ‘itshabhiswe indlela yenyaniso.’2 Petros 2:1, 2.

^ isiqe. 2 Amazwe aphantsi kweYurophu aquka amazwana aseMerika.