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UVukani!  |  Septemba 2013

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

UZheng He

UZheng He

“Siye satyhubela umgama ongamawaka-waka eeli * sisemanzini, saza sabona amaza amakhulu okweentaba kunye nemimandla engaphucukanga kangako ekude lee . . . ngoxa iiseyile zethu zaziqhubeka ziphaphazela ubusuku nemini, sihamba phezu kwaloo maza makhulu ngokungathi sinqumla nje indlela.”—Umbhalo weminyaka yee-1400 eChangle Fujian, eTshayina, ngoZheng He.

ITSHAYINA lilizwe lezinto ezinkulu. Inabona bemi baninzi yaye lelinye lawona mazwe anomhlaba omkhulu ehlabathini. Abantu bakhona bakha uDonga Olukhulu, esinye sezona zakhiwo zibalaseleyo embalini. Iinqanawa ezinkulu ezenziwa ngabaLawuli baseTshayina bakwaMing, uYongle noXuande, zazininzi kunazo naziphi na ezazinokwenziwa kwiminyaka engamakhulu amane eyayiza kulandela. Elona gosa liphambili kwezo nqanawa yayinguMsilamsi wakumzantsi-ntshona waseTshayina, uZheng He.

AMANDLA, URHWEBO NOKUZENZEL’ IGAMA

Ngokutsho kombhalo ocatshulwe ekuqaleni kweli nqaku, injongo kaZheng He “yayikukubonisa amandla abantu abaphetheyo okuguqul’ ubomi nokubaphatha kakuhle abo babalawulayo.” Lo mbhalo uthi, ngenxa yolu hambo lude, “amazwe athe qelele aye aba phantsi [kweTshayina] . . . Kubalawuli, kwakusiza abantu basemzini abavela phesheya kolwandle . . . beze kuzimasa iinkundla zethu bephethe izinto zexabiso nezipho.”

Amanye amazibuko ezaya kuwo iinqanawa zikaZheng He

Asikaziwa ncam isizathu sokuba aba baphathi bakwaMing bathabathe olu hambo. Abanye bathi uZheng He wayengunozakuzaku olungileyo nonomdla kwindlela abaphila  ngayo abantu besizwe esinamandla noxolo. Ukanti abanye bathi wayenguphum’ asilwe owayefuna ukulawula imimandla emininzi. UZheng He wabaxhasa kakhulu abalawuli ababemamkela ngezipho nakwezopolitiko, kodwa abo bangazange bamamkele yena nabalawuli bakwaMing, babavalela. Ngenxa yohambo olubangel’ umdla lukaZheng He, abalawuli abaninzi abajikeleze uLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya bathumela oonozakuzaku ukuba baye kuguqa phambi kwabalawuli baseTshayina.

Enoba yayiyintoni na injongo yakhe, iinqanawa zikaZheng He zazithwele izinto eziqatywe ivanishi, ezodongwe nezesilika ezenziwe ngabantu abanesandla bakwaMing ukuze ziye kuthengiswa kumazibuko akude. Ezi nqanawa zazibuya nezacholo, amaphondo endlovu, iziqholo, imithi egawulwe kumahlathi afumileyo nezinye izinto zexabiso ezazithandwa ngamaTshayina. Zafika zithwele nendlulamthi, eyayithandwa kakhulu eTshayina. Ngenxa yokutshintshiselana ngezinto nangezimvo, amanye amazwe abona impucuko yaseTshayina eyayibangel’ umdla yeminyaka yee-1400.

Olo hambo ludumileyo lwaphela. Kumashumi eminyaka emva kohambo lukaZheng He, iTshayina yayeka ukurhwebelana namanye amazwe. Bengaboni sizathu sokurhwebelana namanye amazwe, umlawuli omtsha waseTshayina nabacebisi bakhe abangabalandeli bakaConfucius (unqulo lwaseTshayina) bazama ukubuphelisa ngokupheleleyo ubuhlobo phakathi kweTshayina namanye amazwe. Batshabalalisa yonke into eyayinokwenza nolo hambo, kuquka nezo nqanawa. Kungona abantu baseTshayina nakumazwe angaphandle befunda ngeenqanawa ezinkulu zikaZheng He nezinto ezazenzayo.

^ isiqe. 3 Ili ngumlinganiselo wamaTshayina, onobude obuye batshintsha ukutyhubela iminyaka. Kucingwa ukuba ngexesha likaZheng He, ili enye yayinokulingana nesiqingatha sekhilomitha.