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UVUKANI! FEBRUWARI 2013

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UPlato

UPlato

UPlato (owayephila malunga nowama-427-347 B.C.E.) wayesisithandi-sobulumko esingumGrike nesasingumhedeni. Wazalelwa eAthene kwintsapho yeengcungcu ibe wafumana imfundo esemagqabini eyayidla ngokufunyanwa ngabantwana abaphuma kwiintsapho zamaGrike ezifumileyo. Wayezithanda gqitha iimfundiso zesithandi-sobulumko esidumileyo uSocrates kunye nezabalandeli bakaPythagoras, isithandi-sobulumko esasingumakhwekhwetha wezibalo.

EMVA kokutyhutyha amazwe akwiMeditera apho wafika wangena zwabha kwiipolitiki zaseSirakuse isixeko samaGrike esasiseSisili, uPlato wabuyela eAthene apho wafika wavula isikolo sentanda-bulumko nenzululwazi esasibizwa ngokuba yi-Academy. Esi sikolo ekudla ngokuthiwa yiYunivesithi yokuqala eYurophu, sasiyeyona ndawo kwakusenziwa kuyo uphando lwezibalo nentanda-bulumko.

KUTHENI UFANELE UBE NOMDLA KUPLATO?

Iimfundiso zikaPlato zibe negalelo elibonakalayo kwiinkolelo zezigidi zabantu, kuquka nabo bazibiza ngokuba bangamaKristu. Inkoliso yaba bantu icinga ukuba iinkolelo zayo zivela eBhayibhileni. Enye yezona mfundiso zikaPlato ziphambili yile ithi abantu banomphefumlo ongafiyo, ophumayo xa kusifa umzimba.

“Ukungafi komphefumlo yenye yezona mfundiso wayezithanda uPlato.”—Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy

UPlato wayenomdla gqitha kubomi emva kokufa. Incwadi ethi Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy ithi, “ukungafi komphefumlo yenye yezona mfundiso wayezithanda uPlato.” Wayeqinisekile ukuba “umphefumlo uqhubeka uphila emva kokufa komzimba ukuze uvuzwe okanye wohlwaywe” ngokwemisebenzi yaloo mntu ngoxa ebephila emhlabeni. *

 ZASASAZEKA NJANI IIMFUNDISO ZIKAPLATO?

Isikolo sikaPlato saba nefuthe elibonakalayo kubomi babantu ukutyhubela iinkulungwane ezisithoba sikho, ukususela ngowama-387 B.C.E. ukusa kowama-529 C.E. Iimfundiso zikaPlato zaye zasasazeka kakhulu kwimimandla eyayilawulwa yiGrisi neRoma. Isithandi-sobulumko esingumYuda uPhilo waseAlexandria, wamkela iimfundiso zikaPlato njengoko benzayo nabanye abefundisi beNgqobhoko. Ngenxa yoko, iintanda–bulumko zabahedeni, kuquka eyokungafi komphefumlo, zangena ngekroba kwiimfundiso zobuYuda nezobuKristu.

IThe Anchor Bible Dictionary ithi: “Phantse zonke iimfundiso zamaKristu zinento yokwenza nentanda-bulumko yamaGrike ingakumbi iimfundiso zikaPlato, kodwa singathi eyona nto ifundiswa ngabanye abefundisi . . . ziimfundiso zikaPlato.” Khawuthelekise oko kuthethwa zezi ncwadi zilandelayo.

Oko kwathethwa nguPlato: “[Ekufeni,] eyona nto siyiyo, le siyibiza ngokuba ngumphefumlo ongafiyo iyaphuma ize iye koothixo. . . ukuze iphendule ngezenzo zayo—nto leyo engoyikwayo ngamalungisa kodwa engafunwa nokubonwa ngaboni.”—Plato—Laws, Book XII.

Oko ikutshoyo iBhayibhile: Umphefumlo ngumntu ngokwakhe okanye ubomi abuphilayo. Nkqu nezilwanyana ziyimiphefumlo. Xa umntu esifa, umphefumlo uyafa. * Makhe sithethe ngezi zibhalo zilandelayo:

  • “Umntu wokuqala uAdam waba ngumphefumlo ophilayo.”—1 Korinte 15:45.
  • “Wahlabela mgama ke uThixo wathi: ‘Umhlaba mawuvelise imiphefumlo ephilayo ngohlobo lwayo, izilwanyana zasekhaya nezinambuzane namarhamncwa omhlaba.’”—Genesis 1:24.
  • “Umphefumlo wam mawufe.”—Numeri 23:10.
  • “Umphefumlo owonayo—kuya kufa wona.”—Hezekile 18:4.

Kuyacaca ukuba iBhayibhile ayifundisi ukuba umphefumlo uyaphuma xa sisifa. Ngoko ke zibuze, ‘Ngaba iinkolelo zam zivela eBhayibhileni okanye kwintanda-bulumko kaPlato?’

^ isiqe. 7 UPlato wayengengomntu wokuqala ukufundisa le mfundiso yokungafi komphefumlo, nangona inguye owayisasazayo. Le mfundiso echazwa ngeendlela ezahlukahlukeneyo yayifundiswa kwakude kudala kwiicawa zabahedeni, kuquka ezaseYiputa naseBhabhiloni.

^ isiqe. 12 IBhayibhile ifundisa ukuba abantu abafileyo bafana nabaleleyo yaye balindele uvuko. (INtshumayeli 9:5; Yohane 11:11-14; IZenzo 24:15) Ngokwahlukileyo koko, ukuba umntu ebenomphefumlo ongafiyo bekungayi kubakho mfuneko yavuko.