Yiya kwinkcazelo

Yiya kwelilandelayo

Yiya kwiziqulatho

AmaNgqina KaYehova

IsiXhosa

UVUKANI! NOVEMBA 2012

Iingcungela Zamaxesha Aphakathi Kubugcisa Boomatshini

Iingcungela Zamaxesha Aphakathi Kubugcisa Boomatshini

OOMATSHINI sele kusetyenziswa bona kwishishini lemveliso—ngakumbi kwimisebenzi eyenziwa ngokuphindaphindiweyo. Kodwa kwaqalisa nini ukwenziwa koomatshini? Ngaba kwaqala kwiinkulungwane ezimbalwa ezidluleyo xa abemi baseYurophu babesenza iinguqulelo kwezoshishino? Uya kumangaliswa kukufumanisa ukuba ngelo xesha babesele bekho oomatshini.

Impompo ka-Al-Jazari enamavili amabini okujija amanzi

Ekuqaleni kwexesha elaziwa ngokuba lelokuqaqamba kwenzululwazi yamaSilamsi, ukususela kwinkulungwane yesi-8 ukusa kweye-13 C.E. nasemva koko, izifundiswa zoMbindi Mpuma zaguqulela iincwadi zenzululwazi nentanda-bulumko kwisiArabhu nto leyo eyaba luncedo ekulondolozeni inkcazelo yamaGrike adumileyo afana noArchimedes, uAristotle, uCtesibius, uHero waseAleksandriya noPhilo waseByzantium. * Ngokufumana le nkcazelo kwanenye, uBukhosi bamaSilamsi—obabuqala eSpeyini buxananaze kuMntla Afrika noMbindi Mpuma ukusa eAfghanistan—batsho banolwazi olwabunceda bakwazi ukuvelisa oomatshini abazisebenzelayo.

Umbhalo-ngqangi wenkulungwane ye-13 ka-Al-Jazari obonisa iklokhwe emile okwendlovu

Umbhali-mbali ngeteknoloji uDonald Hill uthi xa ethetha ngabo matshini, “babekwazi ukusebenza ixesha elide—iiyure, iintsuku nangaphezulu—ngaphandle koncedo lomntu.” Yintoni eyayibangela oko? Iinjineli zalapho zeza neqhinga lokugcina aba matshini bezisebenzela. Zasebenzisa amanzi akumatanki axhonywe phezulu ukuze amanzi avuzayo ajikelezise aba matshini. Babezivulela bevala, batshintsha-tshintshe icala amanzi aya ngakulo. Aba matshini ngokutsho kukaHill babe “zizixhobo  zokuqala zokuqinisekisa ukuba oomatshini bavele baziyekele ukusebenza.” Cinga ngale mizekelo.

Amachule Oonyana BakaMusa

Oonyana abathathu bakaMusa babephila ngenkulungwane yesithoba eBaghdad. Bafunda kwimisebenzi yeengcaphephe zamaGrike ezaziphila ngaphambi kwabo uPhilo noHero, kuquka ezinye iinjineli zamaTshayina, amaNdiya, namaPersi, ukuze benze izixhobo ezingaphezu kwe-100. Ngokutsho kombhali wenzululwazi uEhsan Masood, ezi zixhobo ziquka ezokwenza amaqula athumela amanzi kumacala ahlukeneyo ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo, oomatshini ababebonisa indlela abasebenza ngayo, izitya zokusela ezazikwazi ukuzikhelela amanzi. Ngokutsho kombhali-mbali wenzululwazi uJim Al-Khalili, oonyana bakaMusa benza oomatshini abalula—ababesenzela abantu iti, nababekwazi ukudlala ifleyiti, “ekusenokwenzeka ukuba yaba ngumzekelo wokuqala womatshini ofakwe imiyalelo yezinto omele uzenze.”

Ezi ndlela zazisetyenziswa ngabo matshini, ziyafana nezo zoomatshini banamhlanje. Nakuba zona, “zazisebenzisa amanzi ubukhulu becala endaweni ye-elektroniki, iindlela ezazisebenza ngayo isafana,” ngokutsho kombhali wenzululwazi uEhsan Masood.

UAl-Jazari,—“UNozala Weerobhoti”

Ngowe-1206, uIbn al-Razzaz al-Jazari wagqiba incwadi yakhe, maxa wambi eguqulela iCompendium on the Theory and Practice of the Mechanical Arts. Ibizwa ngokuba “zizifundo zenkqubo yokuyilwa koomatshini.” Obunye ubugcisa buka-al-Jazari babalasela ngakumbi kunobo bapapashwa ngooNyana bakaMusa, yaye imifanekiso ayizobileyo neenkcukacha zayo icace kangangokuba iinjineli zanamhlanje ziyakwazi ukuvelisa abo matshini bakhe.

Incwadi ka-Al-Jazari ebonisa izixhobo zokunyusa amanzi, kuquka amavili ajikelezayo ukuze atsale amanzi amaninzi. Ababhali-mbali bathi ual-Jazari nguye umyili wokuqala woomatshini behydraulic abasetyenziswa ukufunxa amanzi, kwiinkulungwane ezintathu ngaphambi kokuba benziwe kumazwe aseNtshona.

UAl-Jazari wenza neeklokhwe ezimangalisayo nakuba ziluncedo. Le iboniswe apha yakhiwe ngokutsha kubhazabhaza weevenkile waseDubai. Into elawula ixesha sisitya esizinze kumanzi akuvimba wesisu sendlovu. Esi sitya sizala emva kwemizuzu engama-30 emva koko sintywile, ize loo nto ibangele ukuba iintambo neebhola zikhululeke “kwinqaba” ekumqolo wendlovu. Emva kwesiqingatha seyure kusenzeka oko, eso sitya siphinda sidade ngaphezulu, kuqale omnye umjikelo. Esi sixhobo nabanye oomatshini abazisebenzelayo bayilwa nguAl-Jazari nto leyo ebangela ukuba kuthiwe “ngunozala weerobhoti.”

Limangalisa ngokwenene ibali lobuchule bomntu bokuvelisa izinto! Ukanti eli bali alipheleli nje apho. Lisinika nethemba. Ngoxa amaninzi eqhayisa ngeteknoloji yezi mini, thina sikhunjuzwa ngendlela esimele sibe nombulelo ngayo kumagcisa awayekho ngaphambi kwethu.

^ isiqe. 3 Xa ufuna inkcazelo ngomsebenzi wokuguqulela owenziwa zizifundiswa zama-Arabhu, nceda ufunde inqaku elithi “Indlela IsiArabhu Esaba Lulwimi Lwezifundiswa Ngayo,” kuVukani! kaFebruwari 2012.

Pump: © Gianni Dagli Orti/The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY; clock: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY