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Iingcungela Zamaxesha Aphakathi Kwezonyango

Iingcungela Zamaxesha Aphakathi Kwezonyango

IINKALO ezininzi zezonyango namhlanje kudala zikho kunoba abantu becinga. Enyanisweni, iindlela ezininzi zokunyanga eziqhelekileyo bezisetyenziswa kangangeenkulungwane kwamanye amazwe. Ngokomzekelo, cinga ngembali yezonyango kumaxesha aphakathi kuMbindi-Mpuma.

Ngowama-805 C.E., UCALIPH HARUN AR-RASHID waseka isibhedlele kwidolophu elikomkhulu lakowabo, iBaghdad. Ukususela ngenkulungwane yesi-9 ukusa kweye-13, abanye abalawuli bakha izibhedlele baza bazigcina zikwimeko entle kubo bonke ubukhosi bamaSilamsi ukusuka eSpeyin ukusa eIndiya.

Ezi zibhedlele zazinceda izinhanha namahlwempu enoba ngawaluphi na unqulo. Iingcali zoogqirha zazinyanga izigulana zize ziqeqeshe noogqirha abatsha. Zazinamagumbi ahlukeneyo ngokwezinto ezenziwa kuwo—igumbi lamayeza okunyanga amalungu angaphakathi, izifo zamehlo, amathambo, utyando, izifo ezosulelayo, nezigulo zengqondo. Ntsasa nganye oogqirha babehamba kunye nabo basaqeqeshwayo ukuze baye kuhlola izigulane, bayalele ukutya ezimele zikutye namayeza. Kwakukho oosokhemisti ababesebenza apho baze bakhuphe amayeza. Iimaneja zazigcina iingxelo, zilawula nenkcitho eyenziwayo, yaye zisongamela ukulungiswa kokutya, kuquka neminye imisebenzi yeofisi—kanye njenganamhlanje.

Ababhali-mbali bagqala ezi zibhedlele “njengeyona mpumelelo yeengcungela zamaxesha aphakathi kumazwe amaSilamsi.” UHoward R. Turner, umbhali nombhali-mbali uthi, kubo bonke ubukhosi bamaSilamsi, “kwakusenziwa izibhedlele ukuze kuphuculwe inzululwazi neendlela zokunyanga zanamhlanje.”

URHAZES, wazalwa phakathi kwenkulungwane yesithoba kwisixeko samandulo iRayy, namhlanje esilihlomela dolophu iTehran. Ugqalwa “njengoyena gqirha ubalaseleyo kumaSilamsi nakubo bonke ababekho kumaXesha Aphakathi.” Ukuze ancede abanye oogqirha, uRhazes wazibhala phantsi iindlela azisebenzisayo zonyango, iimeko, izixhobo zakhe, nemiphumo yoko. Wacebisa oogqirha ukuba bazigcine bexakekile ukuze bangazilibali izinto abazenzayo.

Zininzi izinto awazenzayo. Ngokomzekelo, izinto zonyango awazibhalayo ziboniswa kwincwadi enemiqulu engama- 23 iAl-Haw (incwadi eneenkcukacha ezininzi), eyona iphambili kwiincwadi zonyango. Ithi ulwazi ngokukhulelwa nokubeleka, izifo nococeko kumabhinqa, notyando lwamehlo lwafunyanwa kule ncwadi. Phakathi kweencwadi zakhe zezonyango ezingama-56 ezindala, kukho ezinenkcazelo endala enokuthenjwa ngokuphathelele, ingqakaqha nemasisi. URhazes wafumanisa nokuba ifiva yenye yeendlela zokuzikhusela zomzimba.

Ngaphezu koko, wavula nezibhedlele eRayy naseBaghdad, apho ukunyamekela kwakhe abagula ngengqondo kwamzisela igama lokuba nguyise wezazinzulu ngengqondo, nonyango lwengqondo. Wabhala nezinye iincwadi zamachiza, iinkwenkwezi, imathematika, intanda-bulumko, nezakwalizwi.

UAVICENNA, enye inkokeli kwezamayeza, wazalelwa eBukhara, namhlanje yiUzbekistan. Wabalasela njengogqirha, kwintanda-bulumko, kwiinkwenkwezi, nakwimathematika ngenkulungwane ye-11. Wabhala intyilalwazi ethi, The Canon of Medicine, egubungela yonke into ephathelele unyango.

Kule ncwadi yakhe, uAvicenna wabonisa ukuba isifo sephepha siyasulela, yaye sinokusasazwa  ngamanzi nomhlaba, kwanokuba iimvakalelo ziyayichaphazela impilo kabani, nokuba imithambo idlulisela iintlungu kwizihlunu. IThe Canon ichaza indlela alungiswa ngayo amayeza angama-760—indawo ahlala kuyo, indlela yokuwasebenzisa, nemiphumo yawo—ize inikel’ imigaqo yokuvavanywa kwamachiza amatsha. Emva kokuguqulelwa kwayo kwisiLatin, le ncwadi yaqhubeka isetyenziswa kwizikolo zonyango eYurophu kangangamakhulu eminyaka.

Umbhalo ka-Albucasis onezixhobo zonyango

UALBUCASIS naye ubalaseliswa gqitha kwimbali yezonyango. Le ngcungela yenkulungwane yeshumi yazalelwa eAndalusia, kwiSpeyin yanamhlanje, yabhala imiqulu engama-30, kuquka ama-300 amaphepha ezifundo zotyando. Apho, wachaza iindlela eziphambili zokuthunga umntu ngaphakathi, ukukhutshwa kwamatye kwisinyi kusetyenziswa isixhobo esifakwa ngombhobho wokuchama, ukususwa kwedlala, nokongulwa kwamehlo.

UAlbucasis wasebenzisa “inkqubo esetyenziswa namhlanje kwiikliniki” ukuze kube lula ukuzala nokolula igxalaba eligungxukileyo. Wasebenzisa umqhaphu njengento yokugquma inxeba, kunye nesamente ukulungisa amathambo aphukileyo. Wachaza neendlela zokukhupha amazinyo, ezokwenza oozenzele bamazinyo, ukuwalungisa xa emi kakubi nokususa ukubola.

 Imibhalo ka-Albucasis echaza ngenkqubo yotyando yaba yeyokuqala ukubonisa izixhobo ezisetyenziswa ngoogqirha. Yayinemifanekiso ecacileyo emalunga nama-200 yezi zixhobo zokutyanda yaye ichaza indlela yokuzisebenzisa nexesha ezimele zisetyenziswe ngalo. Luncinane utshintsho oluye lwenziwa kwezi zixhobo zakhe kwisithuba senkulungwane.

UAvicenna ekhupha imiyalelo kwilinge lokunyanga ingqakaqha

Ulwazi Lunabela ENtshona

Ngenkulungwane ye-11 neye-12, abaphengululi baqalisa ukuyiguqulela kwisiLatin imibhalo yezonyango yesiArabhu, ngakumbi eToledo, eSpeyin, eMonte Cassino naseSalerno, eItali. Oogqirha bafunda ezo nguqulelo kwiiyunivesithi zaseYurophu indawo eyayinesiLatin. Umbhali wenzululwazi uEhsan Masood uthi, ulwazi lwezonyango loMbindi-Mpuma “lwanabela eYurophu kwiinkulungwane ezalandelayo, mhlawumbi ngaphezu kwayo nayiphi na inzululwazi yamaSilamsi.”

Kucacile ukuba, izinto ezeza nezi ngcungela zamaxesha aphakathi zifana noRhazes, uAvicenna, uAlbucasis, nabanye ababephila ngomhla wabo zinokuchazwa njengesiseko sonyango olukhoyo namhlanje.