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UVUKANI! SEPTEMBA 2012

Bafile Kukoyika Imini Yentshabalalo

Bafile Kukoyika Imini Yentshabalalo

NGOKWAHLUKILEYO kwizinto ezingenasihlahla ezikhankanywe kwinqaku elandulelayo ngokuphathelele isiphelo sehlabathi, zikho izinto esimele sicingisise nzulu ngazo. Abaninzi baxhalatyiswa kukwanda ngokugqithiseleyo kwabemi bomhlaba kuba oko kunokuzisa iingxaki zokushokoxeka kwamanzi nokutya. Abanye baxhalabele oko kunokwenzeka xa kusiwa uqoqosho lwehlabathi. Kuthekani ngeentlekele, izifo ezosulelayo okanye imfazwe yenyukliya? Ngaba intshabalalo yehlabathi iza kuziswa zezo zinto?

Makhe sithi gqabagqaba ngeziganeko ekucingelwa ukuba zinokuzisa isiphelo sehlabathi. Asizizo zonke kwezi ziganeko ezinokubulala wonk’ umntu, kodwa zibonakala zinamandla okuyiphelisa nya indlela abaphila ngayo abantu. Nazi ezinye zazo.

 Ugqabhuko-dubulo Lweentaba

Ngowe-1991, iMount Pinatubo yasePhilippines yagqabhuka, yaza yabulala abantu abangaphezu kwama-700 ngoxa ishiya abamalunga ne-100 000 bengenamakhaya. Kwanyukela esibhakabhakeni ilifu elikhulu lothuthu laya kutsho kumgama weekhilomitha ezingama-30 laza labuyela emhlabeni, langcwaba isilimo latyoboza nophahla lwezindlu. Olo gqabhuko-dubulo lwasePinatubo nolunye olufana nalo luye lwayitshintsha gqitha imozulu kangangeminyaka eliqela.

Iziganeko zogqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu, ezifana nezo zamandulo, beziya kwenza umonakalo ongenakuthelekiswa nazo naziphina ezakha zabonwa ngabantu. Ngaphandle komonakalo obuya kushiywa seso siganeko, imozulu yehlabathi ibiya konakalisa isilimo, kungabikho kutya, kuze kugqube indlala engathethekiyo.

“Iziganeko zentaba-mlilo zibulala izityalo nezilwanyana ezikude kangangeekhilomitha ukusuka kuloo ndawo yazo; ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu lusongela zonke iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo ngokuguqula imozulu ehlabathini lonke.”—“National Geographic.”

Amatye amakhulu asemajukujukwini

Ngenye intsasa ngowe-1908, indoda ethile yayihleli kwiveranda eVanavara, eSiberia, xa yabethwa sisithonga sayiphosa kude kwisitulo eyayihleli kuso. Ngenxa yobushushu obabulapho kwakungathi ihempe eyinxibileyo iyavutha ngumlilo. Elo litye laliwele kumgama weekhilomitha ezingama-60 ukusuka apho. Elo litye lalimalunga neemitha ezingama-35 ububanzi yaye linobunzima obumalunga neekhilogram ezili-100 zezigidi. Emva kokungena kwiatmosfera yomhlaba, eli litye ladubula bubushushu ngenxa yesantya salo. Amandla aphuma kolo dubulo ayelingana neebhombu ezili-1 000 kwezo zasetyenziswa eHiroshima aza atshabalalisa ummandla omalunga nezikwekhilomitha ezingama-2 000 zehlathi laseSiberia. Kakade ke, ilitye elingaphezu kwelo, laliya kwenza umonakalo ongakumbi, likhuphe amadangatye, emva koko ehle amaqondo obushushu emhlabeni, zize ziphele nya izilwanyana nezityalo.

“Ukutyhubela imbali yomhlaba, bekusoloko kukho amatye amakhulu awela emhlabeni evela emajukujukwini. Oku kwakusoloko kusenzeka mandulo, kodwa kuseza kuphinda kwenzeke. Into esingayaziyo kukuba kuza kwenzeka nini.”—UChris Palma, umhlohli ophambili kwizifundo ngeenkwenkwezi kwiYunivesithi yePhondo lasePennsylvania.

 Ukutshintsha Kwemozulu

Izazinzulu zikholelwa ukuba ukufudumala komhlaba, imozulu engenazigqibo, ukunyibilika komkhenkce, ukufa kwezityalo eziphila phantsi kwamanzi olwandle nezinye iintlobo ezibalulekileyo, zonke ezo zinto zalatha ekutshintsheni kwemozulu. Nakuba zingqubana izimvo ngalo mba, abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba le ngxaki ibangela kukutshiswa kwamalahle, ioli nezinye iigesi zendalo—ukukhutshelwa kwekharbon diokside egqithiseleyo emoyeni—ziimoto nemizi-mveliso.

Ezinye iingcali zikholelwa ukuba ukukhutshwa komoya ongcolileyo, nto leyo ebangela ukuba ubushushu bungakwazi ukushiya umhlaba kuko okubangela ukufudumala kwawo. Ekubeni imithi ifunxa ikharbon diokside, ukutshatyalaliswa kwamahlathi nako kunegalelo kule ngxaki.

“Izazinzulu ezininzi zikholelwa ukuba, xa ubushushu busanda ngalo mkhamo nokuveliswa kwekharbon diokside kungancitshiswa, oko kuthetha ukufudumala koMhlaba kuze kuyitshintshe ngendlela engazange ibonwe imozulu, amanzi olwandle aphakame aze agubungele imimandla eselunxwemeni ndawo leyo bahlala kuyo abantu abaninzi.”—“A Mind for Tomorrow: Facts, Values, and the Future.”

Ubhubhani Wesifo

Ngenkulungwane ye-14, isifo ekuthiwa yiBlack Death satshayela isithathu sabemi baseYurophu kwiminyaka nje emibini. Phakathi kowe-1918 nowe-1920, uMbathalala wabulala ubuncinane abantu abazizigidi ezingama-50. Into eyanceda ekubeni ezo zifo zingasasazeki kukuba babengekabi baninzi kangaka abantu abahambahambayo. Kodwa ekubeni bebaninzi kangaka abantu abathontelene ezixekweni nabatyhutyha amazwe ngamazwe namhlanje, ezo zifo zingagqiba elimiweyo ngokuphanyaza kweliso.

Isifo esinjalo sinokuzenzekela ngokwemvelo. Kodwa ngoku abantu boyika izifo zangabom zamachiza. Iingcali zala mayeza zithi iqela nje elincinane labantu abanolwazi ngala machiza linokufumana iindlela zokuwenza kwi-Intanethi zize ziwavelise.

Izifo zemvelo zisesisisongelo esikhulu nangoku; kodwa utshaba olucingisisayo olunala machiza–lawo aza [kuxhathisa amayeza]—lungabangela omkhulu wona umbhodamo”—The Bipartisan WMD Terrorism Research Center.

 Ukutshabalala Kweentlobo Zezinto Eziphilayo Ezibalulekileyo

Kule minyaka mihlanu idluleyo, abafuyi beenyosi baseUnited States baye baphulukana neenyosi ezingama-30 eepesente nyaka ngamnye ngenxa yokuchithakala kwebubu lazo, ingxaki engaziwayo negqugqise ihlabathi apho onke amabubu eenyosi asuka athi shwaka eshiya izindlu zawo. Iinyosi azisincedi ngobusi nje kuphela. Zisasaza umungu kwizityalo ezibalulekileyo, kuquka iidiliya, iiapile, iimbotyi zesoya, nomqhaphu. Ubomi bethu buxhomekeke ezinyosini.

Enye into esixhomekeke kuyo zizityalo ezincinane eziphila emanzini. Ngaphandle kwazo bezingayi kubakho iintlanzi. Ukuba ibingekho imisundululu, besingayi kuvuna kutya kwaneleyo. Ukutshabalala kwezi zinto zibaluleke kangaka kungabangela ukunqongophala kokutya nendlala kuze kubekho ugonyamelo noqhankqalazo. Ukungcoliswa komoya, ukuxinana kwabantu, ukulinywa ngokugqithiseleyo komhlaba, ukonakaliswa kwendawo yazo nokutshintsha kwemozulu kunokuphumela ekutshabalaleni kweentlobo zezilwanyana, mhlawumbi ngokuphindwe kali-1 000 kunokuba zinjalo iintlekele zemvelo.

“Minyaka le, liba phakathi kwe-18 000 nama-55 000 inani leentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezitshabalalayo. Unobangela: zizinto ezenziwa ngabantu.”—United Nations Development Program.

Imfazwe Yenyukliya

Isihlandlo nje esinye sokudubula kwenyukliya kunokusitshayela ngokuphanyaza kweso isixeko—ubungqina boko benzeka kabini ngoAgasti 1945. Inyukliya inamandla angenambaliso, iliza layo, umoya, amandla, ubushushu, umlilo nemitha yayo itshayela kwanto ephambi kwayo. Imitha yayo yonakalisa ukutya namanzi. Imfazwe yenyukliya ibiya kunyusela emoyeni iitoni zothuli, kuze oko kuthintele imitha yelanga kutsho kubande emhlabeni. Oko bekuya kusitshabalalisa isilimo nezityalo. Xa kungekho kutya, abantu nezilwanyana bebeya kufa yindlala. Kuthiwa asithoba amazwe anezixhobo zokuhlasela ngenyukliya. Akho namanye amazwe ekucacayo ukuba asazenzela ezawo izixhobo zenyukliya. Abanqolobi babila besoma bezifunela ezabo.

“Izixhobo zenyukliya sesona sisongelo siphambili eluntwini. . . . Zimalunga nama-25 000 izixhobo zenyukliya ezikhoyo ehlabathini . . . Akuntsuku zatywala abanqolobi bazifumanele ezabo.”—Union of Concerned Scientists.