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UVUKANI! MATSHI 2011

Incwadi Onokuyithemba—Icandelo 5

IGrisi Kwimbali YeBhayibhile

Incwadi Onokuyithemba—Icandelo 5

Eli linqaku lesihlanu kwasixhenxe “kaVukani!” athetha ngamagunya asixhenxe akwimbali yeBhayibhile. Injongo yawo kukubonisa ukuba iBhayibhile inokuthenjwa, iphefumlelwe nguThixo yaye ithetha ngethemba lokupheliswa kokubandezeleka kwabantu okubangelwe kukulawulwa ngabantu abakhohlakeleyo.

KWINKULUNGWANE yesine Ngaphambi Kwexesha Eliqhelekileyo, ityendyana laseMakedoni elinguAleksandire lenza iGrisi * yaba yinxalenye ebalulekileyo yembali. Eneneni, lenza iGrisi yaba ligunya lesihlanu lehlabathi kwimbali yeBhayibhile yaye ekugqibeleni lada labizwa ngokuba nguAleksandire Omkhulu. Amagunya angaphambi kweli yayiyiYiputa, iAsiriya, iBhabhiloni namaMedi namaPersi.

Emva kokufa kuka-Aleksandire ubukhosi bakhe bawa. Noko ke, iGrisi yaqhubeka inempembelelo nasemva kweminyaka iwile, ngenkcubeko, ulwimi, unqulo nentanda-bulumko yayo.

Malunga nama-200 eminyaka ngaphambili, isiprofeto seBhayibhile sathetha kuAleksandire Omkhulu

Imbali Enokuthenjwa

IBhayibhile ayitsho ukuba abaprofeti bakaThixo babekho ngexesha lokulawula kweGrisi yaye kwakungekho neencwadi eziphefumlelweyo zeBhayibhile ezabhalwayo ngoko. Sekunjalo, kwathethwa ngeGrisi kwisiprofeto seBhayibhile. Ukongezelela, iZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike ngokuqhelekileyo ezibizwa ngokuba yiTestamente Entsha, zisoloko zithetha ngempembelelo yamaGrike. KwaSirayeli kwakukho izixeko zamaGrike ezilishumi ezazibizwa ngokuba yiDekapoli, igama elithathwe kwelesiGrike elithetha “izixeko ezilishumi.” (Mateyu 4:25; Marko 5:20; 7:31) IBhayibhile ithetha ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngalo mmandla yaye imbali, amabhodlo eeholo zemiboniso nemidlalo, iitempile neebhafu zokuhlambela zingqina ukuba yayikho.

Kwakhona, iBhayibhile ibhekisela ngokuphindaphindiweyo kwinkcubeko nonqulo  lwaseGrisi ingakumbi kwincwadi yeZenzo eyabhalwa ngugqirha uLuka. Makhe sihlole imizekelo embalwa:

Xa ithetha ngezinto ezenzeka xa uPawulos wayetyelele eAthene ngowama-50 C.E., iBhayibhile ithi esi sixeko “sasizaliswe zizithixo.” (IZenzo 17:16) Imbali iyangqina ukuba eAthene nakwiindawo ezaziyingqongile kwakuzele izithixo neetempile.

IZenzo 17:21 zithi, “onke ama-Athene nabasemzini abaphambukele apho babechitha ixesha labo lokuphola bengenzi nto ngaphandle kokuxela okuthile okanye ukuphulaphula okuthile okutsha.” Imibhalo kaThucydides noDemosthenes ingqina ukuba ama-Athene ayekuthanda ukuncokola nokuxoxa ngezinto.

IBhayibhile ithi, ‘izithandi-zobulumko zamaEpikure nezamaStoyike zabambana [noPawulos] ngencoko’ zaza zamsa eAreyopago ukuze zive okungakumbi awayeza kukutsho. (IZenzo 17:18, 19) IAthene yayidume ngezithandi zobulumko zayo ezininzi kuquka amaEpikure namaStoyike.

Isibingelelo esenzelwe ‘uthixo ongaziwayo’

UPawulos uthetha ngesibingelelo saseAthene esibhalwe kwathiwa, “kongaziwayo uthixo.” (IZenzo 17:23) Izibingelelo ezazenzelwe ‘UThixo Ongaziwayo’ kusenokwenzeka ukuba zazakhiwe nguEpimenides waseKrete.

Kwintetho yakhe yaseAthene, uPawulos ucaphula amazwi athi, “kuba nathi siyinzala yakhe” engathi la mazwi athethwa yimbongi enye kodwa uthi “nabathile kwiimbongi eziphakathi kwenu.” (IZenzo 17:28) Ezi mbongi zamaGrike kubonakala ukuba yayinguAratus noCleanthes.

Omnye umphengululi wathi: “Ingxelo yotyelelo lukaPawulos eAthene kubonakala ukuba yabhalwa ngumntu owayeseAthene nowazibonayo izinto athetha ngazo.” Kunokutshiwo nangendlela iBhayibhile ezichaza ngayo izinto ezenzeka kuPawulos e-Efese yaseAsia Minor. Kwinkulungwane yokuqala Yexesha Eliqhelekileyo, esi sixeko sasisaqhelisela unqulo lobuhedeni lwamaGrike ingakumbi olukathixokazi uArtemis.

Umfanekiso wothixokazi wase-Efese uArtemis

Itempile ka-Artemis, eyayingomnye wemimangaliso esixhenxe yamandulo, ikhankanywa izihlandlo  eziliqela kwincwadi yeZenzo. Ngokomzekelo, sichazelwa ukuba ubulungiseleli bukaPawulos e-Efese bacaphukisa umkhandi wesilivere uDemetriyo owayeneshishini elaliqhuba kakuhle lokwenza izithixo zesilivere zika-Artemis. UDemetriyo onomsindo wathi, “lo Pawulos, weyisela isihlwele esikhulu waza wasiphethulela kolunye uluvo, esithi abo benziwe ngezandla asingabo oothixo.” (IZenzo 19:23-28) Emva koko, uDemetriyo nehlokondiba elineengcwangu bakhwaza besithi: “Mkhulu uArtemis wamaEfese!”

Asekho nanamhlanje amabhodlo e-Efese nendawo eyayikuyo itempile ka-Artemis. Ukongezelela, imibhalo yamandulo yase-Efese ingqina ukuba zazisenziwa izithixo zokuzukisa lo thixokazi yaye kwakukho abakhandi besilivere abaninzi kweso sixeko.

Imbali Enokuthenjwa

Malunga neminyaka engama-200 ngaphambi kwemihla ka-Aleksandire Omkhulu, uDaniyeli umprofeti kaYehova uThixo wabhala wathi ngokuphathelele amagunya ehlabathi: “Kwavela inkunzi yebhokhwe ngasentshonalanga ihamba phezu komhlaba uphela, ingawuchukumisi umhlaba. Le nkunzi yebhokhwe yayinophondo oluphawulekayo phakathi kwamehlo ayo. Yasinga kulaa nkunzi yegusha ineempondo ezimbini . . . yangqala kuyo ngamandla inomsindo omkhulu. Yayihlasela ngoburhalarhume, yayihlaba yazaphula iimpondo zayo zombini, yaza inkunzi yegusha ayabi namandla okumelana nayo. Ngoko yayikhahlela phantsi inkunzi yegusha leyo, yayinyathela . . . Yaza le nkunzi yebhokhwe yazigwagwisa ngokugqithileyo; kodwa kamsinya nje yakuba namandla, lwaphuka uphondo lwayo olukhulu, kwaza esikhundleni salo kwavela ezine eziphawulekayo, zibheke ngasemimoyeni yomine yamazulu.”—Daniyeli 8:5-8.

IBhayibhile yaluchaza ngokuchanileyo uloyiso luka-Aleksandire Omkhulu nokuqhekeka kobukhosi bakhe

Ayebhekisela kubani la mazwi? UDaniyeli uyaphendula: “Inkunzi yegusha oyibonileyo ineempondo ezimbini imela ookumkani bamaMedi namaPersi. Yaye inkunzi yebhokhwe exhonti imela ukumkani waseGrisi; ke lona uphondo olukhulu olwaluphakathi kwamehlo ayo, lumela ukumkani wokuqala.”—Daniyeli 8:20-22.

Cinga ngala mazwi kaDaniyeli! Ebudeni bolawulo lweBhabhiloni, iBhayibhile yaprofeta ukuba amagunya ayeza kulandela yayiza kuba ngamaMedi namaPersi neGrisi. Ukongezelela, njengokuba bekutshiwo ngasentla iBhayibhile yachaza ukuba, “kamsinya nje yakuba namandla . . . uphondo lwayo olukhulu”—uAleksandire—lwaluza ‘kwaphuka’ yaye lwaluza kuthatyathelw’ indawo zezine yaye yongezelela isithi akukho nalunye kuzo olwaluza kuvela kwisizukulwana sika-Aleksandire.—Daniyeli 11:4.

Eso siprofeto sazaliseka ngokweenkcukacha. UAleksandire waba ngukumkani ngowama-336 B.C.E., yaye kwiminyaka nje esixhenxe kamva woyisa uKumkani wamaPersi owayenamandla uDariyo III. Emva koko, uAleksandire wabandisa ubukhosi bakhe de wafa esemncinane ngowama-323 B.C.E., eneminyaka engama-32 ubudala. Emva koAleksandire akuzange kulawule umntu omnye yaye akakho owomnombo wakhe owangena ezihlangwini zakhe. Kunoko, njengoko incwadi ethi The Hellenistic Age isitsho: “Iinjengele zakhe ezine—uLysimachus, uCassander, uSeleucus noPtolemy—“zazenza ookumkani” zaza zabuthathela kuzo ubukhosi.

Ebudeni bolawulo lwakhe uAleksandire  wazalisekisa ezinye iziprofeto zeBhayibhile. Ngokomzekelo, abaprofeti uHezekile noZekariya ababephila ngenkulungwane yesixhenxe neyesithandathu Ngaphambi Kwexesha Eliqhelekileyo, baprofeta ngokutshatyalaliswa kwesixeko saseTire. (Hezekile 26:3-5, 12; 27:32-36; Zekariya 9:3, 4) UHezekile wabhala wathi amatye nothuthu lwaso lwaluza kuphoswa “emanzini.” Ngaba loo mazwi azaliseka?

UAleksandire wazalisekisa isiprofeto seBhayibhile xa wakha umchankcatho oya kwisiqithi saseTire

Phawula oko kwenziwa ngumkhosi ka-Aleksandire ebudeni bokubhukuqa kwawo iTire ngowama-332 B.C.E. Wasebenzisa amabhodlo eTire yangaphambili ukuze wakhe umchankcatho owawusiya kwisixeko saseTire, ngelo xesha esasakhiwe esiqithini. Elo cebo laphumelela yaye iTire yawa. Umntu owatyelela amabhodlo eso sixeko ngenkulungwane ye-19 wathi: “Iziprofeto ezingeTire ziye zazaliseka ngokweenkcukacha.” *

Isithembiso Onokusikholelwa

Uloyiso luka-Aleksandire aluzange luzise uxolo nonqabiseko ehlabathini. Emva kokuhlola ulawulo lwamaGrike amandulo, omnye umphengululi wathi: “Indlela yabantu yokuphila . . . yatshintsha kancinane.” Le meko yenzeka ngokuphindaphindiweyo embalini yaye ingqina oko kuthethwa yiBhayibhile ukuba xa ‘umntu elawula umntu iba kukwenzakala kwakhe.’—INtshumayeli 8:9.

Noko ke, ulawulo lwabantu olukhohlakeleyo aluyi kuqhubeka ngonaphakade ngoba uThixo uye waseka urhulumente obhetele kakhulu kunowabantu. Lo rhulumente ubizwa ngokuba buBukumkani bukaThixo uya kuthath’ indawo yabo bonke oorhulumente babantu yaye abalawulwa bawo baya kufumana uxolo nonqabiseko lokwenene.—Isaya 25:6; 65:21, 22; Daniyeli 2:35, 44; ISityhilelo 11:15.

UKumkani woBukumkani bukaThixo nguYesu Kristu. Ngokwahlukileyo kubalawuli babantu, abanyolukele ukuphatha, uYesu uqhutywa luthando ngoThixo nangabantu. Ethetha ngoYesu umdumisi wathi: “Uya kumhlangula lowo ulihlwempu ukhalela uncedo, kwanalowo uxhwalekileyo nabani na ongenamncedi. Uya kuba nosizi ngesisweli nangehlwempu, nemiphefumlo yabangamahlwempu uya kuyisindisa. Uya kuwukhulula umphefumlo wabo kwingcinezelo nakugonyamelo.”—INdumiso 72:12-14.

Ngaba olu luhlobo loMlawuli omfunayo? Ukuba kunjalo, uya kuba wenza kakuhle ngokuhlolisisa igunya lehlabathi lesithandathu kwimbali yeBhayibhile—iRoma. Eneneni uMsindisi ekwakuprofetwe ngaye wazalwa ebudeni bolawulo lwamaRoma yaye wenza izinto ezingasoze zilibaleke embalini yoluntu. Sicela ufunde inqaku lesithandathu lolu ngcelele, kuVukani! olandelayo.

^ isiqe. 4 IGrisi ekuthethwe ngayo kweli nqaku yeyamandulo, ngaphambi kwenkulungwane yokuqala yaye akubhekiselwa kwimida yanamhlanje.

^ isiqe. 23 Njengokuba uHezekile wayeprofetile, iTire yoyiswa okokuqala nguKumkani waseBhabhiloni uNebhukadenetsare. (Hezekile 26:7) Emva koko, eso sixeko saphinda sakhiwa. Eso sixeko seso satshatyalaliswa nguAleksandire, ngaloo ndlela kuzalisekisa onke amazwi abaprofeti.