Kɔ emu nsɛm afã hɔ

Kɔ nsɛm a ɛdi hɔ a ɛde wo bɛkɔ mmeaemmeae

Kɔ emu nsɛm afã hɔ

Yehowa Adansefo

Twi

Nyan!  |  August 2015

 ASƐM A ƐDA SO

Nkwammoaa—Nwomakorabea a Ɛwɔ Nkwa!

Nkwammoaa—Nwomakorabea a Ɛwɔ Nkwa!

AFE 1953 no, abɔde ho abenfo James Watson ne Francis Crick yɛɛ nhwehwɛmu bi, na nea wɔhuuɛ no maa nnipa tee nkwa ase yie. Nea wɔde too dwa no maa animdefo huu sɛnea DNA te ankasa. * Nkwammoaa dodow no ara mu no, biribi wom te sɛ ahoma, na ɛno mu na wɔakora nkwammoaa ho nsɛm. Akɔyɛ te sɛ nea “wɔakyerɛw” nwoma ahorow ahorow ahyɛ nwomakorabea bi ma. Anokwa, nhwehwɛmu a nwomanimfoɔ yi yɛeɛ no buee abɔde ho nneɛma pii ani so! Nanso asɛm no ne sɛ nkwammoaa ho nsɛm a “wɔakyerɛw” no so mfaso ne sɛn? Nea ɛhia sɛ yɛbisa koraa ne sɛ, ‘Nsɛm no nyinaa fi he?’

 NSƐM A ƐBOA NKWAMMOAA

Ebia woabisa wo ho pɛn sɛ, ‘Ɛyɛ dɛn koraa na aba bi nyini bɛyɛ dua kɛseɛ anaa mmadwoa nyini bɛyɛ nipa?’ Wo su ne wo nipaban nso ɛ, woabisa wo ho nea ɛyɛe a wonyaeɛ? Ne nyinaa wɔ wo DNA mu.

Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ nkwammoaa nyinaa wɔ DNA. Wohwɛ DNA ho mfoni a, wobɛka sɛ atwedeɛ bi a wɔakyinkyim no. Sɛ wofa nnipa DNA sɛɛ a, nneɛma a ɛhyehyɛ “atwedeɛ” no mu no bɛyɛ ɔpepepem mmiɛnsa. Nneɛma a ɛhyehyɛ mu no yɛ mmienu mmienu na ne nyinaa yɛ nnan. Wɔde agyiraehyɛde A, C, G, ne T gyina hɔ ma emu biara. * Afe 1957 no, Crick kaa sɛ nea ɛhyehyɛ mu no mu na nsɛm no nyinaa wɔ na ɛyɛ nnidiso nnidiso. Ɛfi 1960 reba na wɔfii ase tee saa asɛm no ase yie.

Ɛnnɛ, wɔtumi fa akwan horow so kora nneɛma te sɛ mfoni, nnyegyeeɛ, ne nsɛm so. Sɛ yɛbɛyɛ nhwɛso a, kɔmputa wɔ akwan a ɛfa so kora nneɛma so. Saa ara na nkwammoaa nso kora nsɛm wɔ DNA mu. Sɛ nkwammoaa mu kyekyɛ anaa abɔde bi nya ne sɛso a, emu biara nya ne DNA. Wei na ɛma abɔde biara nya ne su.

Saa nsɛm yi boa nkwammoaa no sɛn? Yɛbɛtumi de DNA atoto sɛnea yɛyɛ aduane bi te sɛ keeki ho. Wopɛ sɛ woyɛ keeki a, wobɛkan ho nsɛm na woakeka ɛho nneɛma afra. Wobɛwie no na woanya wo keeki. Saa na DNA te. Nanso ɛno deɛ, ɛnyɛ keeki na wobɛnya, na mmom biribi te sɛ nantwi anaa kabegyi. Nkwammoaa deɛ, wɔahyehyɛ ho biribiara ato hɔ dada, na wei nyinaa yɛ nwonwa.

Sɛ yɛse yɛrekyerɛw bacteria ho asɛm a, yɛbɛhia nwoma a ɛkura kratafa mmaako, mmaako 1,000

 Wɔkora nsɛm wɔ nkwammoaa no mu kɔsi bere a ɛho bɛhia. Ɛtɔ da a na ɛhia sɛ nkwammoaa foforo a ɛyɛ den bɛsi nea ayɛ mmerɛ anaa awu ananmu anaa ɛde su bi ma abɔde foforo. Nsɛm dodow sɛn na DNA tumi kora so? Ma yɛnhwɛ aboa ketekete te sɛ bacteria. Germanni nyansahufo bi a wɔfrɛ no Bernd-Olaf Küppers kaa sɛ: “Nea ɛbɛma yɛate asɛm no ase no, yɛmfa no sɛ yɛrekyerɛw bacteria ho asɛm. Yɛbɛhia nwoma a ɛkura kratafa apem na akɔ mu.” Enti ɔbenfo David Deamer kyerɛwee sɛ: “Yɛhwɛ nneɛma nketenkete te sɛ bacteria mpo a, yɛhu sɛ ɛho nsɛm nni ano.” Ɛnneɛ nipa nso ɛ? Küppers buaa sɛ: “Sɛ worekyerɛw nnipa DNA ho nsɛm a, ɛbɛgye nwomakorabea kɛseɛ na ne nyinaa akɔ hɔ.”

“WƆAKYERƐW NA OBIARA ATUMI ATE ASEƐ”

Nwomanimfoɔ taa ka sɛ DNA yɛ “awosu a wɔakyerɛw wɔ kasa bi mu.” Küppers kaa sɛ, saa asɛm yi nyɛ “kasakoa bi kɛkɛ.” Mmom no, sɛnea “kasa biara” wɔ ne mmara no, saa ara na DNA nso wɔ ne deɛ. Yɛbɛtwa no tiaa a, DNA wɔ “mmara” a ɛde yɛ adwuma, na sɛnea wɔahyehyɛ “mmara” no, ɛdi so pɛpɛɛpɛ.

Enti sɛ yɛbɛka a, obi ho nsɛm a “wɔakyerɛw” wɔ ne DNA mu no na ɛkyerɛ sɛnea nneɛma bɛkeka abom wɔ nkwammoaa mu, sɛnea aduane ho akwankyerɛ a obi bɛdi so boa ma ɔtumi yɛ aduane pɔtee bi no. Sɛ nhwɛso no, nsɛm a “wɔakyerɛw” wɔ DNA mu na ɛboa ma yɛnya nnompe mu nkwammoaa, ntini mu nkwammoaa, ne wedeɛ mu nkwammoaa. Richard Dawkins yɛ abɔde ho ɔbenfo, na ɔkyerɛw sɛ: “Ahoma a ɛkura DNA mu no nyinaa yɛ awosu mu nsɛm a wɔakyerɛw wɔ mu. Wohwɛ a, wobɛka sɛ asɛm yi nyɛ nokware, nanso wɔakyerɛw na obiara atumi ate aseɛ.”

Dawid bɔɔ Onyankopɔn mpae sɛ: “Berɛ a meyɛ mogyatoa mpo no, w’ani hunuu me, na wɔtwerɛɛ m’akwaa nyinaa wɔ wo nwoma mu.” (Dwom 139:16) Ɛwom, Dawid de kasakoa na ɛyɛɛ adwuma, nanso nea ɔkaeɛ no yɛ nokware turodoo te sɛ Bible akyerɛwfo a aka no. Wɔn mu biara  ammɔ ne srɛ mu anka biribiara da, na saa ara nso na wɔn mu biara anto anansesɛm.—2 Samuel 23:1, 2; 2 Timoteo 3:16.

Ɛyɛ dɛn na mmofra nya su a wɔn awofo wɔ no bi?

NSƐM A ƐWOM NO FI HE?

Yɛtaa ka sɛ asɛm bi safoa bue asɛm bi pon. Mpɛn pii no, sɛ nyansahufo kyerɛkyerɛ ahintasɛm bi mu a, ɛbɛwie aseɛ no, na akɔbue ahintasɛm foforo so. Saa ara na ɛte wɔ DNA ho. Bere a ɛbɛdaa adi sɛ yɛn ho nsɛm nyinaa wɔ DNA mu no, ebinom dwenee ho ara na wɔbisaa sɛ, ɛnneɛ ‘Nsɛm a ɛwom no fi he?’ Onipa biara nni hɔ a ɔnim nea ɛyɛeɛ a DNA a ɛdi kan baeɛ. Enti sɛnea obiara hu no no na ɔbɛka. Nanso ɛnsɛ sɛ yɛbɔ yɛn srɛ mu ka biribiara kɛkɛ.

  • Afe 1999 mu no, fam tutufo huu tete kyɛmfɛre ahorow bi wɔ Pakistan. Na nkyerɛwde bi wowɔ ho a obi nnim nea ɛkyerɛ. Bɛsi nnɛ, obiara ntumi nhuu nea nkyerɛwde no kyerɛ. Nanso obiara gye di sɛ obi na ɔkyerɛw saa nsɛm no guu ho.

  • Bere a Watson ne Crick huu sɛnea DNA te na wɔde too dwa no, ankyɛ koraa na nyansahufo mmienu bi nso bɔɔ mmɔden sɛ wɔbɛkyere nsɛm wɔ wim. Ɛno na ɛmaa nyansahufo fii ase hwehwɛɛ sɛ wɔbɛhu abɔde foforo bi wɔ wim anaa.

Dɛn na yɛrepɛ akyerɛ? Sɛ nnipa hu nkyerɛwde wɔ annwene bi ho anaa wɔte nnyegyeeɛ bi wɔ wim a, ntɛm ara wɔhu sɛ ɛfi obi. Ɛho nhia sɛ wɔhu ɔnii ko ansa na wɔagye adi. Nanso bere a nnipa huu sɛnea DNA yɛ adwuma no, wɔn mu pii piaa nokwasɛm yi too nkyɛn. Na wɔmpɛ sɛ wɔgye tom sɛ obi a ɔnim nyansa na ɔhyehyɛ too hɔ. Wohwɛ a ntease wom sɛ wɔbɛyɛ saa? Wei ne nyansahu hyia? Anigyesɛm ne sɛ, nyansahufo akukudam te sɛ Gene Hwang ne Yan-Der Hsuuw ne nnipa yi nyɛ adwene. * Ma yɛntie nea wɔwɔ ka.

Ɔbenfo Gene Hwang asua awosu ho ade akɔ akyiri. Bere bi a atwam no na ɔgye adannandi di, nanso nhwehwɛmu a ɔyɛeɛ ma ɔsesaa n’adwene. Nyan! akyerɛwfo ne no twetwee nkɔmmɔ na ɔkaa sɛ: “Awosu ho ade a mesuae no ma mehuu sɛnea nkwa te ankasa. Ɛwiee aseɛ no, mebɛgye toom sɛ Ɔbɔadeɛ nyansafo bi wɔ hɔ.”

Ɔbenfo Yan-Der Hsuuw yɛ adwuma wɔ National Pingtung University of Science and Technology wɔ Taiwan. Ɔno na ɔhwɛ asoɛ a wɔsua nyinsɛn ho ade so. Bere bi na ɔno nso gye adannandi di, nanso nhwehwɛmu bi a ɔyɛeɛ ma ɔsesaa n’adwene. Ɔkyerɛkyerɛɛ sɛnea nkwammoaa mu kyekyɛ bɛyɛ nipadua akwaa mu. Ɔkaa sɛ: “Nkwammoaa biara ne baabi a ɛwɔ ne dwuma a ɛdi. Nea ɛdi kan koraa no, nkwammoaa no boaboa wɔn ano akuakuo na ebi bɛyɛ akwaa te sɛ koma, berɛboɔ, asaabo, nsa, ne nnan. Engineer bɛn paa na ɔbɛtumi aso biribi a ɛte saa ho daeɛ na kampɛsɛ wɔakyerɛw ho asɛm?  Nanso ɔkwan a mogyatɔw fa so nyini bɛyɛ nnipa no, wɔahyehyɛ ne nyinaa wɔ DNA mu ma ɛyɛ nwonwa. Sɛ mehwɛ wei nyinaa a, nea mɛka ara ne sɛ nkwa fi Onyankopɔn.”

Gene Hwang (benkum) ne Yan-Der Hsuuw

ƐHO HIA SƐ YƐHU?

Nokwasɛm ne sɛ ɛho hia paa! Sɛ Onyankopɔn na ɔbɔɔ nkwa a, ɛnneɛ ɔno na yɛde ɛho anuonyam bɛma no, na ɛnyɛ adannandi. (Adiyisɛm 4:11) Bio nso, sɛ yɛn nyinaa yɛ Ɔbɔadeɛ nyansafo bi nsa ano adwuma a, ɛnneɛ na biribi nti na ɔbɔɔ yɛn. Sɛ nkwa baeɛ ara kwa a, ɛnneɛ na asetena nni atirimpɔ biara. *

Nokwasɛm ni, nnipa a wɔdwene nneɛma ho kɔ akyiri deɛ, sɛ biribi kyere wɔn adwene a, ɛyɛ a wɔpɛ sɛ wonya ho mmuae a ɛtɔ asom. Ná Viktor Frankl yɛ adwene ne nneyɛe ho ɔbenfo, na ɔkaa sɛ: “Ade a ɛboa obi ma ɔyere ne ho yɛ biribi wɔ n’asetenam ne sɛ ɔbɛhu nea enti a ɔte ase.” Yɛn nyinaa fi awosu mu pɛ sɛ yɛhu baabi a yɛfi, na sɛ yɛbɛnya ho mmuae a ɛtɔ asom a, gye sɛ yɛgye tom sɛ Onyankopɔn na ɔbɔɔ yɛn. Nanso asɛmmisa ne sɛ, sɛ Onyankopɔn na ɔbɔɔ yɛn a, ɔkwan bɛn so na ɔma yɛhu no?

Yesu Kristo buaa saa asɛm yi. Ɔkaa sɛ: “Ɛnyɛ paanoo nko ara so na onipa nam bɛtena aseɛ, na mmom asɛm biara a ɛfiri Yehowa [anaa Nyankopɔn] anom nso.” (Mateo 4:4) Yehowa asɛm a ɛwɔ Bible mu no ama nnipa ɔpepem pii ahu nea nti a wɔte ase, na wɔrehwɛ daakye papa bi kwan. (1 Tesalonikafoɔ 2:13) Wo nso sua Bible no na ɛmmoa wo. Anyɛ hwee koraa no, woanya nea wobɛgyina so de ahwehwɛ nwoma soronko yi mu.

^ nky. 3 DNA ho nhwehwɛmu a animdefo bi yɛeɛ na Watson ne Crick yɛɛ bi too so. Nsɛmfua deoxyribonucleic acid na wɔatwa no tiaa DNA.—Hwɛ adaka a wɔato din “ DNA Ho Nsɛm.”

^ nky. 6 Agyiraehyɛde A, C, G, ne T no gyina hɔ ma adenine, cytosine, guanine, ne thymine.

^ nky. 18 Wokɔ jw.org a, wobɛhu nsɛm bi a wɔabisabisa nyansahufo bi. Klik “Search” na bɔ “interview scientist” hyɛ hɔ.

^ nky. 22 Wopɛ sɛ wonya abɔde ne adannandi ho nkyerɛkyerɛm pii a, hwɛ nwomawa a wɔato din The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking ne Was Life Created? Kɔ www.jw.org.