Kɔ emu nsɛm afã hɔ

Kɔ nsɛm a ɛdi hɔ a ɛde wo bɛkɔ mmeaemmeae

Kɔ emu nsɛm afã hɔ

Yehowa Adansefo

Twi

Nyan!  |  May 2015

 ABAKƆSƐM

Al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi

SƐ WOKƆTƆ biribi na wosese ne boɔ anaa wogyina nsenia so hwɛ wo mu duru a, wonim nea ɛboa ma wohu ano? Ɛfi Hindu ne Arabic akontaahyɛde. Ɛyɛɛ dɛn na “Hindu ne Arabic” ma yɛnyaa biribi a ɛte saa? Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ India na animdefo fii ase de akontaahyɛde 0 kɔsi 9 yɛɛ adwuma. Akyiri yi, ebinom de Arabic kasa trɛw mu kɔɔ Amerika ne Europa aman so. Wɔn mu baako a ɔdii mu akoten paa ne owura bi a ɔde Muhammad ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi. Ɛbɛyɛ sɛ wɔwoo no wɔ baabi a nnɛ wɔfrɛ no Uzbekistan wɔ afe 780 Y.B. mu. Wɔfrɛ al-Khwarizmi sɛ “Arabic akontaabu mu ɔberempɔn.” Ɛyɛɛ dɛn na ɔnyaa abodin kakraka saa?

“ARABIC AKONTAABU MU ƆBEREMPƆN”

Al-Khwarizmi hyehyɛɛ biribi a ɛno na nnɛ ɛma yɛbu akontaa hu ano. Ɔkyerɛw wei ho asɛm wɔ ne nwoma bi a wɔato din The Book of Restoring and Balancing mu. Wɔfrɛ nwoma yi Kitab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala wɔ Arabic mu, na asɛmfua al-jabr mu na yɛnyaa Borɔfo kasa “algebra.” Ɔbenfo Ehsan Masood kaa sɛ “algebra” yɛ “akontaabu mu ade baako a ɛdi mu a nnipa ayɛ, na aboa nyansahufo paa.” *

Nwomanimfoɔ bi nso kaa sɛ: “Ntoaso sukuufo pii ka sɛ anka ɛnsɛ sɛ [al-Khwarizmi] ha ne ho pii saa.” Nanso adwene a al-Khwarizmi de yɛɛ saa ne sɛ ɔbɛma akontaabu ayɛ mmerɛ ama adwadifoɔ na sɛ obi nso rekyɛ agyapade anaa ɔresusu asase a, wammerɛ.

Mfe pii akyi no, nkontaabu mu abenfo te sɛ Galileo ne Fibonacci bɔɔ al-Khwarizmi aba so, efisɛ ɔkyerɛkyerɛɛ  akontaabu mu maa emu daa hɔ na asete nyɛ den. Nea al-Khwarizmi yɛe no too fapem maa nnipa tumi suaa nkontaabu kɔɔ akyiri. Wei boaa nwomanimfoɔ a wɔwɔ Middle East ma wɔhuu sɛnea wɔbɛsusu ahinasa ahu ne kɛse ne ne tɛtrɛtɛ. Ɛno ara na ɛboaa wɔn ma wɔsuaa nsoromma ho nneɛma pii. *

Algebra yɛ “akontaabu mu ade baako a ɛdi mu paa a nnipa ayɛ”

Ebinom ahwɛ al-Khwarizmi akontaabu no so de bi aka ho ma ayɛ mmerɛ. Afei wɔahu ɔkwan foforo a wɔbɛfa so asusu biribi ahu ne kɛse anaa ne tɛtrɛtɛ. Adansi ho animdefo a wɔwɔ Middle East de nimdeɛ foforo yi yɛɛ adwuma mfe pii ansa na wɔn mfɛfo a wɔwɔ aman foforo so resua. Wɔnyaa ho nimdeɛ pii bere a Kristoman ne Nkramofo ntɔkwa gyina mu no. Wɔde nimdeɛ yi kɔɔ wɔn kurom, na wɔmaa Nkramofo a wɔfaa wɔn nnommum ne wɔn a wɔtu kɔtenaa saa aman no so kyerɛɛ wɔn bi kaa ho.

ARABIC AKONTAABU KƆƆ BAABIARA

Bere bi akyi no, wɔkyerɛɛ al-Khwarizmi adwuma no ase kɔɔ Latin kasa mu. Amanfo se Italyni nkontaabufo bi a ɔde Fibonacci (ɔtenaa ase fi bɛyɛ afe 1170-1250), a wɔsan frɛ no Leonardo a ɔfi Pisa na ɔmaa Hindu ne Arabic akontaahyɛde gyee din wɔ Europa aman so. Ɔkɔsuaa wɔ Mediterranea, na akyiri yi, ɔkyerɛw wɔ ne nwoma a wɔato din Book of Calculation mu.

Ɛgyee mfe pii ansa na amanfo rete al-Khwarizmi adwuma no ase. Nanso seesei ɛno na ɛdi akoten wɔ nyansahu ne mfididwuma ne adwadie mu.

^ nky. 5 Ɛnnɛ, sɛ wɔrebu “algebra” akontaa a, wɔde nkyerɛwde x anaa y gyina hɔ ma biribi a yɛnnim. Ɛho nhwɛso ni: Fa no sɛ wɔaka akyerɛ wo sɛ wode x ka 4 ho a, wobɛnya 6. Ɛnneɛ x gyina hɔ ma dɛn? Sɛ woyi 4 fi 6 mu a ɛbɛka 2. Enti x yɛ 2.

^ nky. 7 Tete Helafo a wɔsuaa nsoromma ho ade no na wɔdii kan huu sɛnea wɔsusu ahinasa kɛse ne ne tɛtrɛtɛ. Saa nimdeɛ yi boaa Nkramosom mu abenfo ma wɔhuu baabi a Mecca wɔ. Sɛ Nkramofo rebɔ mpae a, wɔpɛ sɛ wɔde wɔn ani kyerɛ Mecca. Bio nso, ɛyɛ wɔn amammerɛ sɛ, sɛ wɔresie amu a, wɔde ani bɛkyerɛ Mecca. Sɛ wɔrekum aboa nso a, wɔde wɔn ani kyerɛ hɔ.