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Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova

Chitumbuka

Wukani!  |  Na. 5 2016

 MBIRI YAKALE

Aristotle

Aristotle

IVYO Aristotle wakachita vyaka vyakujumpha 2,300 kumasinda, vyawovwira chomene pa nkhani za sayansi na filosofe. Ŵanthu ŵachali kughatemwa mabuku agho wakalemba, ndipo ŵali kughang’anamura mu viyowoyero vinyake na kughasambira. Pulofesa wa vya mdauko, James MacLachlan wakalemba kuti “ŵanthu ŵa ku Ulaya ŵakenderanga fundo izo Aristotle wakayowoya pa nkhani za chilengiwa kwa vyaka pafupifupi 2,000.” Fundo zinyake za Aristotle zikanjira mu visambizgo vya Chikatolika, Chipulotesitanti, kweniso Chisilamu.

Wakalemba Mabuku pa Nkhani Zinandi Chomene

Aristotle wakalemba mabuku pa nkhani za maseŵero, vyamumlengalenga, vyaumoyo, kakhaliro, chiyowoyero, malango, fundo, vyachilengiwa, kendero ka vinthu, kukondwa, mapowemu, ndyali, kaghanaghaniro, na vinyake vinandi. Kweniso wakalemba vya mzimu, uwo wakatenge ukufwa yayi. Kweni mabuku agho wakalemba pa nkhani za umoyo na fundo ndigho wakumanyikwirapo chomene.

Pakukhumba kulongosora umo charu chiliri, ŵakaswiri Ŵachigiriki ŵakagomezganga chomene kuwona, kusanda, na kufika pa fundo. Pakwamba, ŵakasachizganga uwo ungaŵa unenesko wakuwonekerathu pa chinthu chinyake. Ŵakagomezganga kuti usange ŵangaghanaghanirapo chomene pa unenesko uwu, ŵangafika pa fundo yeneko.

Nthowa iyi ndiyo yikaŵawovwira kuti ŵasange mazgoro pa nkhani zakupambanapambana. Yimoza yake njakuti vinthu vyose mu mlengalenga vikwenda kuyana na ndondomeko yake. Kweni pakaŵa pakusuzga chomene kuti ŵawone makora vinthu vinyake kwambura visulo vyakupimira, lekani ŵanandi ŵakapuluskika, kusazgapo Aristotle. Chiyelezgero, ŵakagomezganga kuti mapulaneti na nyenyezi vikuzingilira charu chapasi. Pa nyengo yira, ŵanthu ŵakatenge uwu mbunenesko wakuwonekerathu.  Buku linyake (The Closing of the Western Mind) likuti: “Ivyo ŵakaghanaghananga na kuwona vikawoneka kuti vikukhozgera maghanoghano gha Ŵagiriki ghakuti charu chapasi chili pakatikati pa vyose vya mu mlengalenga.”

Ŵasayansi pera ndiwo ŵalutilirenge kuŵa na maghanoghano agha mphanyi suzgo likuru pakaŵavya. Kweni ndimo vikaŵira yayi.

Chikatolika Chikatolera Maghanoghano gha Aristotle

Mu vyaka vya pakati pa 600 na 1500 A.D, “Ŵakhristu” ŵa ku Ulaya ŵakamba kugomezga kuti visambizgo vinyake vya Aristotle ni vyaunenesko. Ŵalongozgi Ŵachikatolika, chomenechomene Thomas Aquinas (1224 m’paka 1274) ŵakatora fundo zinyake izo Aristotle wakalemba na kuzinjizga mu chisambizgo cha Tchalitchi. Ntheura fundo ya Aristotle yakuti charu chapasi chili pakatikati pa vyose mu mlengalenga yikazgoka chisambizgo cha Chikatolika. Ŵalongozgi ŵa Chipulotesitanti, nga Calvin na Luther, nawo ŵakatolera chisambizgo ichi, ndipo ŵakatenge chikukolerana na ivyo Baibolo likuyowoya.—Wonani bokosi lakuti “ Ŵakalipulikiskira Mphuvya Baibolo.”

Ŵanthu ŵakamba kugomezga kuti visambizgo vinyake vya Aristotle ni vyaunenesko

Mulembi munyake, Charles Freeman, wakati: “Chikamba kuŵa chakusuzga kuti munthu wapambaniske fundo zinyake [visambizgo vya Aristotle] na Chikatolika.” Ntheura ŵanyake ŵali kuyowoyapo kuti Aquinas “wakabatiza” Aristotle kuti waŵe Mukatolika. Kweni Freeman wakati unenesko ngwakuti, “Aquinas ndiyo wakazgoka msambiri wa Aristotle.” Panji tingasazgirapo kuti tchalitchi nalo likamba kwendera visambizgo vya Aristotle. Pa chifukwa ichi, apo Galileo, nkhwantha ya vya mu mlengalenga na masamu, wakiza na ukaboni wakuti charu chikuzingilira zuŵa, ŵakamutolera ku Khoti ndipo ŵakamuchichizga kuti wajisuske pa ivyo wakayowoyanga. * Chakuzizika ntchakuti Aristotle wakamanyanga kuti ŵasayansi ŵakulutilira kusanda maukaboni pa vinthu ivyo ŵasanga, ivyo vingachitiska kuti ŵasinthe ivyo ŵakaghanaghananga pakwamba. Matchalitchi nagho ghaŵenge na maghanoghano agha mphanyi pakaŵavya suzgo.

^ ndime 11 Wonani Wukani! Wachingelezi wa Epulero 22, 2003, kuti muwone umo Tchalitchi likamusuzgira Galileo.