Lutani apo pali nkhani

Lutani pa menyu yachiŵiri

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Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova

Chitumbuka

WUKANI! NA. 3 2016

 MBIRI YAKALE

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis

PANJI ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakumumanya yayi Ignaz Semmelweis, kweni ivyo wakachita vikovwira ŵanandi mazuŵa ghano. Munthu uyu wakababikira ku Buda (lero ni Budapest), mu charu cha Hungary, ndipo mu 1844 wakatora digiri ya vyachipatala pa yunivesite ya Vienna. Mu 1846, wakamba ntchito nga wachiŵiri kwa pulofesa pa chipatala cha First Maternity Clinic of Vienna’s General Hospital. Semmelweis wakati wafika pa chipatala ichi, wakasanga kuti pali suzgo likuru chomene. Pakaŵa nthenda iyo yikakomanga ŵanakazi ŵanyake para ŵababa waka.

Ŵanthu ŵakasachizga vinandi ivyo ŵakatenge vikwambiska nthenda iyi, kweni ŵanakazi ŵakalutilira kufwa. Vyose ivyo ŵakayezga kuchita kuti ŵachepeske chiŵelengero cha ŵanakazi awo ŵakafwanga, vikatondeka. Semmelweis chitima chikamukora chomene kuwona kuti ŵanakazi ŵakutambura na kufwa nyifwa yakuŵinya. Ntheura wakaŵikapo mtima kuti wamanye icho chikwambiska nthenda iyi.

Chipatala icho Semmelweis wakagwirangako ntchito chikaŵa na vipinda viŵiri. Chakuzizika ntchakuti mu chipinda chakwamba ŵanakazi ŵakafwanga ŵanandi kuluska mu chipinda chachiŵiri. Mphambano yikaŵa yakuti mu chipinda chakwamba mukaŵanga ŵana ŵa sukulu awo ŵakasambiranga vyaudokotala apo mu chipinda chachiŵiri mukaŵa awo ŵakasambiranga vyauzamba. Ipo chifukwa wuli kunyake ŵanthu ŵakafwanga ŵanandi apo kunyake yayi? Kuti wamanye icho chikuchitika, Semmelweis wakasanda vinthu ivyo wakaghanaghananga kuti vikwambiska nthenda iyi chimoza na chimoza, kweni pakaŵavya icho chikalongora kuti ndicho chikambiskanga nthenda iyi.

Kukwambilira kwa 1847, pakachitika chinthu chinyake icho chikamovwira kumanya icho chikwambiska suzgo. Mubwezi wake, Jakob Kolletschka, uyo ŵakagwiliranga lumoza ntchito, wakafwa chifukwa cha ndopa ziheni izo zikamunjira wakati wajigwaza pakutumbura chitanda kuti wachipime. Apo wakawonanga lipoti la nyifwa ya Kolletshka, Semmelweis wakasanga kuti umo mubwezi wake wakafwira vikayana waka na umo ŵakafwiranga ŵanakazi. Ntheura Simmelweis wakaghanaghana kuti panyake “poyizoni” wakufuma mu vitanda  ndiyo wakakomanga ŵanakazi ŵanthumbo. Ŵadokotala na ŵana ŵa sukulu awo ŵakapimanga vitanda pambere ŵandalute ku chipinda cha ŵanakazi ŵanthumbo, ŵakamanyanga yayi kuti nyengo yeneyira ndiyo ŵakapirangako ŵanakazi ŵara matenda para ŵakuŵapima nthumbo panji panyengo yakubaba. Mu chipinda chachiŵiri mukafwanga ŵanthu ŵachoko chifukwa chakuti awo ŵakasambiranga vyauzamba ŵakapimanga vitanda yayi.

Nyengo yeneyiyo, Semmelweis wakaŵika dango lakuti waliyose wagezenge mu mawoko na munkhwala wakukoma majeremusi pambere wandambe kupima ŵanakazi ŵanthumbo. Icho chikachitika ntchakuti chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakafwanga chikakhira chomene, kufuma pa 18.27 peresenti mu Epulero kufika pa 0.19 kuumaliro wa chaka.

Ignaz Semmelweis wakati: ‘Khumbo lane ndakuti masuzgo gha mu materenite ghamare, ndipo mama wapone kuti wakhalenge na mfumu wake kweniso mwana wake.’

Ni ŵanthu wose yayi awo ŵakakondwa na ivyo Semmelweis wakachita. Chifukwa ntchakuti ivyo wakasanga vikasuskananga na ivyo mabwana ghake ghakaghanaghananga. Kweniso mabwana agha ghakakwenyeleranga chomene na chitatata cha Semmelweis. Paumaliro, ŵakamulekeska ntchito Semmelweis ku Vienna ndipo wakawelera ku Hungary. Wakati wafika kura, wakamba ntchito pa chipatala cha St. Rochus ku Pest, ndipo wakaŵa mulara mu dipatimenti ya materenite. Nako wakaŵika dango la kugezga mu mawoko. Ntheura ŵakati ŵalondezga dango ili, chiŵelengero cha ŵanthu awo ŵakafwanga chikakhira chomene.

Mu 1861, Semmelweis wakalemba buku (The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever) lakulongosora icho chikambiskanga nthenda iyo yikakomanga ŵanakazi para ŵababa waka na umo ŵangachitira kuti yileke kwambukira. Chachitima ntchakuti ŵanthu ŵakakolerana navyo yayi ivyo wakabowozga m’paka pakajumpha vyaka vinandi. Nyengo yose iyi, ŵanthu ŵanandi chomene awo mphanyi ŵakapona ŵakafwa.

Semmelweis wakawoneseskanga kuti waliyose pa chipatala wageza mu mawoko.—Painting by Robert Thom

Pamanyuma, ŵanthu ŵakamba kumuchindika Semmelweis nga njumoza wa ŵanthu awo ŵakambiska kuti ŵanthu ŵagezenge mu mawoko na munkhwala wakukoma majeremusi. Buku lake likawovwira ŵadokotala kumanya kuti kuli majeremusi agho ghakwambiska matenda. Semmelweis njumoza wa awo ŵakabowozga umo majeremusi ghakwambiskira matenda, ndipo ŵanthu ŵakuti buku lake ‘ntchinthu chakuzirwa chomene icho wali kupeleka ku mtundu wa ŵanthu pa nkhani ya vyachipatala.’ Kweni chakuzizika ntchakuti Dango la Mozesi ilo likapelekeka vyaka vyakujumpha 3,000 kumasinda, likayowoya kale umo ŵanthu ŵakwenera kuchitira para ŵakora vitanda. Dango ili lili kulembeka mu Baibolo.