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Gongwe la Mulinda  |  April 2015

Ŵakasanga Chinthu Chakuzirwa ku Nkhando

Ŵakasanga Chinthu Chakuzirwa ku Nkhando

NTCHIVICHI chikwiza mu maghanoghano para mwapulika za nkhando? Mungaghanaghana za viswaswa na sungu liheni. Ndipo ntchakukayikiska kuti kungasangika chinthu chiwemi kweniso chakuzirwa.

Ndipouli, kale chinthu chinyake chakuzirwa chomene chikasangika ku nkhando. Kasi ŵakabowozga chinthu wuli? Chifukwa wuli icho ŵakasanga ntchakuzirwa kwa ise?

KASI ŴAKABOWOZGA VICHI?

Cha m’ma 1900, Bernard P. Grenfell na Arthur S. Hunt ŵa ku University ya Oxford ŵakaluta ku Egypt. Ku nkhando yakufupi na Nile Valley ŵakabowozgako vibenthu vya mipukutu. Cha m’ma 1920 apo ŵakalembanga vya mipukutu iyo ŵakasanga, Grenfell wakagulaso mipukutu yinyake iyo yikasangika ku Egypt. Ŵa John Rylands Library ku Manchester, England ndiwo ŵakamovwira kusanga mipukutu iyi. Kweni Bernard P. Grenfell na Arthur S. Hunt ŵakafwa pambere ŵandamalizge kulemba vya mipukutu iyi.

Colin H. Roberts wa ku Oxford University ndiyo wakamalizga kulemba vya mipukutu iyi. Apo wakasankhanga mipukutu iyi, wakasanga mupukutu unyake uwo ukaŵa masentimita 9 mu utali ndipo mu ufupi masentimita 6. Wakaghamanyanga makora mazgu gha Chigiriki agho ghakalembeka mu mupukutu uwu. Kumphepete yinyake kuli mazgu gha pa Yohane 18:31-33, apo kunyake kuli vesi 37 na 38. Roberts wakamanya kuti wasanga chinthu chakuzirwa chomene.

KUMANYA CHAKA ICHO ŴAKALEMBERA

Roberts wakawona kuti mupukutu uwu ukaŵa wakale chomene. Kasi wakamanya wuli? Wakayaniska vilembo ivi na mipukutu yinyake iyo yikalembeka kale (paleography). *Nthowa iyi yikamovwira kumanya chaka icho ŵakalembera. Kweni wakakhumbanga kumanya usange chaka icho wakasanga chikaŵa chaunenesko nadi. Ntheura wakajambura mupukutu uwu nakutumizga ku ŵanthu ŵatatu awo ŵakamanyanga vyamipukutu, kuti nawo ŵayowoye chaka icho ukalembekera. Kasi ŵanthu aŵa ŵakayowoyachi?

Ŵati ŵawona umo mupukutu uwu ukalembekera, wose ŵatatu ŵakakolerana kuti ukalembeka cha m’ma 200 C.E., pamanyuma pakuti mpositole Yohane wafwa. Munthu munyakeso uyo wakumanya vya mipukutu nayo wakukolerana nawo. Nthowa iyo ŵakagwiliskira ntchito pakuyaniska vilembo njaunenesko. Ndipo mupukutu uwu ndiwo ngwakale chomene.

KASI IVYO ŴA RYLANDS ŴALI KUSANGA VIKOVWIRA WULI?

Chifukwa wuli mupukutu wa buku la Yohane ngwakuzirwa chomene mazuŵa ghano? Pali vifukwa viŵiri. Chakwamba, ukutovwira kumanya kuti Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ŵakazirwiskanga Malemba.

Chifukwa wuli mupukutu wa buku la Yohane ngwakuzirwa chomene mazuŵa ghano?

Mu 200 C.E., kukaŵa mipukutu mitundu paŵiri. Unyake ukaŵanga nga ni buku (codex) apo unyake nga ni pepara lakuchita kuzinga (scroll). Mipukutu iyo ŵakazinganga na kuzungulura ghakaŵanga mapepara ghatali agho  ŵakapanganga kufuma ku twakumera panji vikumba. Kanandi ŵakalembanga ku lwande lumoza.

Kweni mupukutu uwo Roberts wakasanga ukalembeka kosekose. Panji mupukutu uwu ukaŵa wakuzinga yayi kweni buku lakale panji kuti codex. Buku ili ŵakapanganga kufuma ku twakumera panji vikumba ivyo ŵakasonanga pamoza.

Chifukwa wuli buku ili likaŵa liwemi kuluska mupukutu wakuzinga? Pakuti Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ŵakapharazganga, likaŵa lipusu kuyegha. (Mateyu 24:14; 28:19, 20) Ŵakapharazganga na kusambizga ku nyumba na nyumba, mu msika na kulikose uko kukasangikanga ŵanthu. (Milimo 5:42; 17:17; 20:20) Ntheura chikaŵa chiwemi kuŵa na buku chifukwa likaŵa lichoko.

Chikaŵaso chipusu kuti mipingo na ŵanthu ŵasange buku ili. Ntheura ŵanthu ŵakakoperanga mabuku gha Mateyu, Mariko, Luka na Yohane. Ivi vikawovwira kuti Chikhristu chifike kutali mwaluŵiro.

Mupukutu wa ŵa Rylands kuseri na kuseri

Chifukwa chachiŵiri ntchakuti, ivyo ŵa Rylands ŵali kusanga vikutovwira kumanya kuti Baibolo ndaunenesko. Nangauli mupukutu uwo ŵali kusanga wuli na mavesi ghachoko waka gha buku la Yohane, kweni mazgu agho ghalimo ghakukolerana ndendende na ivyo tikuŵerenga sono mu Baibolo. Ndipo mupukutu uwu ukulongora kuti mu Baibolo ŵandasinthemo chilichose nangauli ŵanthu ŵakopera kananadi waka.

Mupukutu wa buku la Yohane uwo ŵa Rylands ŵali kusanga na mipukutu yinyake yinandi, ni ukaboni wakuti ivyo vili kulembeka mu Baibolo vikuyana waka na ivyo vikalembeka mu chiyowoyero chakwambilira. Buku linyake likuti: “Mipukutu yakale iyi yikovwira ŵanthu awo ŵakukayikira kugomezga kuti Baibolo lasono ndaunenesko kweniso ndakugomezgeka.” (The Bible as History)

Padera pa ivyo ŵanthu ŵakubowozga, Ŵakhristu wakugomezga chomene Baibolo. Ŵakugomezga kuti: ‘Malemba ghose ngakupelekeka na Chiuta.’ (2 Timote 3:16) Ntheura, ntchakukhozga kuti vinthu vyakuzirwa vyakale vikukolerana na ivyo Baibolo likuyowoya. Baibolo likuti: “Mazgu gha Yehova ghakukhalilira muyirayira.”—1 Petrosi 1:25.

^ ndime 8 Buku linyake likuti paleography ni nthowa ya kusambilira vilembo vyakale. (Manuscripts of the Greek Bible) Ŵanthu ŵakusintha kalembero. Kusintha uku kukovwira kumanya chaka icho vilembo vikalembekera para ŵayaniska na mipukutu yinyake iyo yili kulembeka madeti.