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Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova

Chitumbuka

Gongwe la Mulinda  |  September 2014

Baibolo la ku Siriya Lakuchemeka Peshitta

Baibolo la ku Siriya Lakuchemeka Peshitta

Mu 1892, Agnes Smith Lewis na Margaret Dunlop Gibson awo ŵakaŵa ŵamileza [ŵamaphaska], ŵakenda mazuŵa 9 pa hachi. Ŵakaluta ku St. Catherine kufupi na Phiri la Sinayi. Pa nyengo iyo, chikaŵa chakofya kwenda maulendo ghanthena. Kweni chifukwa wuli ŵakenda mtunda wose uwu? Zgoro limovwiraninge kuti mugomezge Baibolo.

Agnes Smith Lewis na St. Catherine’s Monastery

NYENGO yichoko waka pambere Yesu wandalute kuchanya, wakaphalira ŵasambiri ŵake kuti ŵachitire ukaboni vya iyo, “mu Yerusalemu na mu Yudeya mose na Samariya ndiposo ku vigaŵa vyakutali chomene vya charu chapasi.” (Milimo 1:8) Ŵasambiri ŵakaŵikapo mtima kuchitira ukaboni mwachikanga. Kweni ŵanthu ŵakamba kuŵatinkha chomene mu Yerusalemu, mwakuti Stefano ŵakamukoma. Ntheura ŵasambiri ŵanyake ŵakachimbilira ku Antiyoke wa ku Siriya, umoza wa misumba yikuru chomene mu Romu. Msumba uwu ukaŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 550 kumpoto kwa Yerusalemu.—Milimo 11:19.

Ŵasambiri ŵakalutilira kupharazga “makani ghawemi” ghakuyowoya vya Yesu mu Antiyoke ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakagomezga. (Milimo 11:20, 21) Mukati mwa msumba wa Antiyoke ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga Chigiriki. Kweni kuwaro kwa msumba uwu na vigaŵa vyapafupi ŵakayowoyanga Chisiriya.

MAKANI GHAWEMI MU CHISIRIYA

Ŵakhristu awo ŵakayowoyanga Chisiriya ŵakati ŵamba kuŵa ŵanandi, pakakhumbikwanga kuti makani ghawemi ghang’anamurike mu chiyowoyero chawo. Ŵakang’anamura vigaŵa vinyake vya malemba gha Chigiriki mu Chisiriya. Vikuwoneka kuti chiyowoyero ichi ndicho chikaŵa chakwamba kung’anamulika.

 M’ma 170 C.E., Tatian mulembi wa ku Siriya uyo wakaŵako kwambira mu 120 m’paka 173 C.E., wakasazga mabuku gha Mateyu, Mariko, Luka na Yohane, na kupanga buku limoza lakuchemeka Diatessaron. Diatessaron ni lizgu lakufuma ku Chigiriki ilo likung’anamura kuti “kufuma mu mabuku ghanayi [gha Makani Ghawemi].” Buku ili likaŵa mu Chigiriki panji mu Chisiriya. Pamasinda, Ephraem uyo wakaŵako kwambira mu 310 m’paka 373 C.E., wakalemba buku ilo likayowoyapo vya buku la Diatessaron. Ichi chikulongora kuti Ŵakhristu ŵanandi ku Siriya ŵakaŵa nalo buku la Diatessaron.

Buku la Diatessaroni ndakuzirwa chomene kwa ise. Chifukwa wuli? M’ma 1800, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakusambira chomene ŵakatenge mabuku gha Mateyu, Mariko, Luka na Yohane ghakalembeka mwakuchedwa chomene. Ŵakatenge mabuku agha ghakalembeka pakatikati pa 130 na 170 C.E. Ntheura ŵakatenge ghangatiphalira unenesko yayi vya Yesu. Kweni ndimo viliri yayi. Mipukutu yakale ya Diatessaron iyo ŵali kusanga yikulongora kuti mabuku gha Mateyu, Mariko, Luka na Yohane, mu vyaka ivi ŵanthu ŵakaŵa kuti ŵali nagho kale. Mabuku agha ghakwenera kuti ndigho ghakambilira kulembeka. Kweniso apo Tatian, wakalembanga buku la Diatessaron, wakasazgamo yayi mabuku ghanyake gha Ivangeli agho ngakukayikiska. Uwu mbukaboni wakuti ŵanthu ŵakakananga mabuku ghakukayikiska.

Baibolo la Peshitta ndakale chomene. Ndachiŵiri pa mipukutu ghakale, likalembeka mu 464 C.E.

Kwambira waka mu 400 C.E., Baibolo la Chisiriya ndilo ŵanthu ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito kumpoto kwa Mesopotamiya. Baibolo ili likwenera kuti likalembeka m’ma 100 na 200 C.E. Likaŵa na mabuku ghanandi, kweni mukaŵavya mabuku ghankhondi agha: 2 Petrosi, 2 Yohane, 3 Yohane, Yuda na Uvumbuzi. Baibolo ili likumanyikwa kuti Pesshitta, kung’anamura kuti “ndipusu” panji “lakupulikikwa makora.” Baibolo la Peshitta ndimoza mwa mabuku ghakale chomene ilo likawovwira kuti Mazgu gha Chiuta ghathandazgike.

Mupukutu unyake wa Baibolo la Peshitta pali deti ili 459/460 C.E. Ichi chikulongora kuti uwu ndiwo ni mupukutu wakale chomene uwo uli na deti lenecho. M’ma 508 C.E., Baibolo la Peshitta likalembekaso makora, ndipo ŵakasazgamo mabuku ghankhondi agho ghakakhalira. Baibolo ili likamba kumanyikwa kuti Philoxenian.

MIPUKUTU YINYAKE YACHISIRIYA

Kufika m’ma 1800, mipukutu yinandi yakwambira Mateyu m’paka Uvumbuzi iyo yikaŵako yikalembeka m’ma 400 C.E. Ntheura, ŵanthu awo ŵakusanda vya Baibolo ŵakanweka na mipukutu yakwambilira, wa Vulgate mu Chilatini, kweniso wa Peshitta mu Chisiriya. Pa nyengo iyo, ŵanji ŵakaghanaghananga kuti Baibolo la Peshitta ŵanozgaso waka Baibolo linyake lakale. Kweni palije ukaboni wakulongora kuti Baibolo linyake ili likaŵako nadi. Pakuti Baibolo la Chisiriya likalembeka m’ma 100 C.E., lingatovwira kumanya umo vikaŵira pakung’anamura Baibolo lakale, kweniso lingawovwira awo ŵakusanda vya Baibolo. Kasi Baibolo lakale la Chisiriya likaŵako nadi? Kasi lingasangika?

Mupukutu wakuchemeka Sinaitic Syriac. Malemba agho ghakuwonekera ni Mateyu, Mariko, Luka, kweniso Yohane

Enya! Pali kusangika mipukutu yiŵiri. Mupukutu wakwamba ngwa m’ma 400 C.E. Mupukutu uwu uli mu gulu la mipukutu yinandi iyo yili ku Britain mu nyumba yakusungamo vinthu vyakale. Mipukutu iyi ŵakayitora ku chipalamba cha Nitrian ku Eguputo mu 1842. William Cureton ndiyo wakasanga mupukutu uwu, ndicho chifukwa ukamayikwanga na zina lakuti Curetonian. Mu mupukutu uwu muli mabuku agho ghali kwamba na Mateyu, Mariko, Yohane na Luka.

Mupukutu wachiŵiri uwo ulipo m’paka sono ngwa Sinaitic Syriac. Vikuwoneka kuti ŵanakazi ŵaŵiri ŵamileza awo taŵazunura kukwambilira kwa nkhani iyi ndiwo ŵakabowozga mupukutu uwu. Nangauli Agnes wakaŵavya digiri ya ku yunivesite, kweni wakasambira Chisiriya na viyowoyero vinyake 7. Mu 1892, Agnes wakabowozga chinthu chinyake chapadera ku St. Catherine ku Eguputo.

 Ku malo agha Agnes wakasanga mupukutu wa Chisiriya mu shelufu. Iyo wakati ‘mupukutu uwu ukaŵa wakubinkha chomene. Kweniso mapepara ghake ghakamatana pamoza chifukwa ukakhala vyaka vinandi kwambura kuwujura.’ Ivyo ŵakalemba mu mupukutu uwu ŵakafufuta na kulembamoso vinyake. Ŵakalembamo vya ŵanakazi awo ŵakatenge mbatuŵa, ndipo ŵakavilemba mu Chisiriya. Kweni Agnes wakawelezgamo malemba ghanyake agho ghakafufutika kuti ghawoneke makora. Ghanyake mwa malemba agho ghakawonekeranga pachanya ni “Mateyu,” “Mariko” panji “Luka.” Ntheura tingati ukaŵa na mabuku gha Mateyu, Mariko, Luka na Yohane, mu Chisiriya. Awo ŵakusanda vya Baibolo ŵakugomezga kuti mupukutu uwu ukwenera kuti ukalembeka m’ma 300 C.E.

Pa mipukutu ya Baibolo iyo yili kusangikapo, mupukutu wa Sinaitic Syriac ngwakuzirwa chomene pamoza na mipukutu ya Chigiriki ya Codex Sinaiticus na Codex Vaticanus. Ŵanandi ŵakugomezga kuti mupukutu wa Curetonian na wa Sinaitic, ŵakang’anamura kufuma ku Baibolo lakale la ku Siriya ilo likalembeka mu 100 panji mu 200 C.E.

“MAZGU GHA CHIUTA WITHU GHAKUKHALILIRA MUYIRAYIRA”

Kasi mipukutu iyi yingamovwira uyo wakukhumba kusambira Baibolo mazuŵa ghano? Enya! Mwachiyelezgero, wonani mazgu ghaumaliro agho mu Mabaibolo ghanyake ghakusangika pamanyuma pa Mariko 16:8. Mazgu agha, ghakusangika mu mupukutu wa Chigiriki wa Codex Alexandrinus uwo ukwenera kuti ukalembeka m’ma 400 C.E. Ghakusangikaso mu mupukutu wa Chilatini wa Vulgate, na mu vinthu vinyake. Ndipouli, buku la Mariko mu mupukutu wa Codex Sinaiticus na Codex Vaticanus likumalira pa chipaturo 16 vesi 8. Mu mupukutu wa Sinaitic Syriac namo mulije mazgu ghaumaliro pamasinda pa Mariko 16:8. Uwu mbukaboni wakuti mazgu ghaumaliro agha, mu mupukutu wakwambilira mukaŵavya mu buku la Mariko.

Kweniso pali chinyake. M’ma 1800, Mabaibolo ghanandi pa 1 Yohane 5:7, 8 pakaŵa fundo yakulongora kuti kuli Ŵachiuta Ŵatatu. Kweni fundo iyi mulije mu mipukutu yakale chomene ya Chigiriki. Mu Baibolo la Peshitta namo mulije fundo iyi. Uwu mbukaboni wakuti fundo iyo mu Mabaibolo ghanyake yikusangika pa 1 Yohane 5:7, 8, njautesi.

Yehova wakayowoyerathu kuti wasungenge na kuvikilira Mazgu ghake. Baibolo likuti: ‘Utheka ukufota, luŵa lukuphapa, kweni mazgu gha Chiuta withu ghamkwima kwamuyirayira.’ (Yesaya 40:8; 1 Petrosi 1:25) Pakuti Baibolo la Peshitta likang’anamulika makora, likovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵapulike Mazgu gha Chiuta.

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