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GONGWE LA MULINDA MARCH 2014

Kasi Vikenda Wuli Kuti ku Spain Kuŵe Baibolo?

Kasi Vikenda Wuli Kuti ku Spain Kuŵe Baibolo?

“Para nkhuya ku Sipeni, kwakuluska nkhugomezga kuti pa ulendo wane pakuya kura, nizamufika kwa imwe kumuwonani nakuti muzakanipelekezge cadera kwenekuko nati nakhorwa dankha kuŵa pamoza namwe.”—Ŵaroma 15:24.

MAZGU agha mpositole Paulosi wakalembera Ŵakhristu ŵa ku Romu, mu 56 C.E. Baibolo likuyowoyapo yayi kuti Paulosi wakaluta nadi ku Spain panji yayi. Kweni Mazgu gha Ciuta ghakafika ku Spain ca m’ma 100 C.E., cifukwa cakuti Paulosi panji ŵamishonale ŵanji ŵakacitapo kanthu.

Pamasinda mu Spain Ŵakhristu ŵakamba kuŵa ŵanandi. Ntheura, pakakhumbikwanga Baibolo la Cilatini. Ŵanthu wose ŵakapulikananga Cilatini cifukwa pa nyengo iyi Spain wakaŵa pasi pa Roma.

BAIBOLO LA CILATINI LIKAWOVWIRA COMENE

Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ku Spain, ŵakang’anamura mabuku gha mu Baibolo ghakupambanapambana mu Cilatini. Mabuku agha ŵakaghasazga pamoza na kupanga Baibolo lakucemeka Vetus Latina Hispana. Baibolo ili likagwira nchito vyaka vinandi mpaka ca m’ma 400 C.E., Jerome wati wamalizga kung’anamura Baibolo lakucemeka Vulgate.

Baibolo ilo Jerome wakang’anamura likakaŵa yayi kufika ku Spain. Munthu munyake zina lake Lucinius wa ku Spain wakatemwanga kuŵazga Baibolo. Munthu uyu wati wapulika kuti Jerome wakung’anamura Baibolo mu Cilatini, wakakhumbisiska kuti walisange luŵiro. Ntheura wakatuma ŵanthu 6 ku Betelehemu kuti ŵakakopere Baibolo ili. Pamasinda, Baibolo la Vulgate likanjira mu malo mwa Vetus Latina Hispana. Mabaibolo gha mu Cilatini agha ghakawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵapulikiske uthenga wa mu Baibolo. Kweni ufumu wa Roma ukati wamara, pakakhumbikwiranga Baibolo mu viyowoyero vinyake.

BAIBOLO PA MASILETI

Mu 400 C.E., ŵanthu ŵa mtundu wa Visigoth na mitundu yinyake ya ku Germany, ŵakapoka caru ca Spain ndipo mukababika ciyowoyero cinyake cakucemeka Gothic. Mitundu iyi yikambiska cisopa cinyake cakucemeka Arianism. Cisopa ici cikasuskanga cisambizgo cakuti kuli ŵaciuta ŵatatu mwa yumoza. Ŵanthu aŵa ŵakiza na Baibolo lawo lakucemeka Gothic. Baibolo ili likagwira nchito mpaka ca m’ma 500 C.E., apo Reccared fumu ya Ŵavisigoth, wakafuma mu cisopa ca Arianism na kunjira Katolika. Fumu iyi yikalangura kuti ŵawoche mabuku ghose gha Ciarian kusazgapo na Baibolo lakucemeka Ulfilas’. Ntheura, mabuku ghose gha Cigoth ghakamara mu Spain.

Sileti la silabu la m’ma 500 C.E., pali mazgu gha mu Baibolo mu Cilatini

Ndipouli, Mazgu gha Ciuta ghakalutilira kuthandazgika mu Spain. Padera pa Cigoth, ŵanthu ŵakaŵa kuti ŵacali kuyowoya Cilatini mu Spain. Ndipo pamasinda, mukababikaso viyowoyero vinyake vya ku Iberia. * Mabuku gha mu Baibolo gha Cilatini agho ŵakaghalemba pa masileti gha masilabu, ŵakaghacemanga kuti Visigoth slates. Masileti agha nga m’ma 500 na 600 C. E. Ndipo  ghanyake pali kulembeka mazgu gha mu Masalimo na Makani Ghawemi. Pa sileti linyake pali cipaturo 15 ca buku la Masalimo.

Pakuti mazgu gha mu Baibolo ghakusangika pa vinthu nga ni ivi, cikulongora kuti kale napo ŵanthu ŵakaŵazganga kweniso kukopera Mazgu gha Ciuta. Nakuti ŵasambizgi ŵakwenera kuti masileti agha ŵakasambizgiranga ŵana kuŵazga na kulemba. Ivyo ŵakalemberanga pa masileti vikaŵa vyakudura yayi ndipo vikapambananga na ivyo ŵakalemberanga Mabaibolo agho ghakaŵa na vithuzithuzi.

Umu ndimo Baibolo la León likuwonekera. Nangauli Baibolo ili likaŵa lapacanya, kweni likawovwira viŵi yayi kuti ŵanthu ŵapulike Mazgu gha Ciuta.

Paliso Baibolo linyake ilo likalembeka mu 960 C.E. Baibolo ili lili na mapepara 516, mu utali 47cm, mu ufupi 34cm ndipo uzito wake, 18kg. Lili na vithuzithuzi vyakutowa. Ndipo ŵakulisunga mu chalichi la San Isdoro, mu msumba wa León ku Spain. Baibolo linyakeso lakucemeka Ripoll, likalembeka mu 1020 C.E., ndipo ŵakulisunga mu Layibulare ya Vatican. Baibolo ili ndilo lili na vithuzithuzi vinandi comene kuluska Mabaibolo ghanyake. Kuti munthu walembe cilembo cimoza, wakwenera kuti wakatoranga zuŵa limoza, ndipo kuti walembe mutu pa Cikopi, sabata yose. Nangauli Mabaibolo agha ghakaŵa ghapacanya, kweni ghakawovwira viŵi yayi kuti ŵanthu ŵapulike Mazgu gha Ciuta.

BAIBOLO MU CIARABU

Ŵasilamu ŵakati ŵanjira mu caru ca Spain ca m’ma 700 C.E., ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakamba kuyowoya Ciarabu. Cigaŵa cose ico kukakhalanga Ŵasilamu Cilatini cikafwa, ntheura pakakhumbikwanga Baibolo la Ciarabu.

Kwambira mu vyaka vya m’ma 400 m’paka 700 C.E., Baibolo la Cilatini na la Ciarabu likawovwira ŵanthu ŵa ku Spain kuti ŵamanye Mazgu gha Ciuta

Mabaibolo ghanandi gha Ciarabu ghakwenera kuti ghakathandazgika mu Spain. Ndipo ca m’ma 700 C.E., John, bishop wa ku Seville wakwenera kuti wakang’anamura Baibolo lose mu Ciarabu. Kweni mabuku gha Ciarabu agha sono kulije. Buku linyake la Makani Ghawemi la m’ma 900 C. E., ŵacali kulisunga mu chalichi linyake ku Spain.

Baibolo la Ciarabu la m’ma 900 C.E.

 MABAIBOLO GHA CISIPANISHI

Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m’ma 1400 AD, ŵanthu ŵakamba kuyowoya comene Cisipanishi mu Iberia. Ciyowoyero ici ndico cikawovwira comene kuti ŵanthu ŵapulike Mazgu gha Ciuta. * Baibolo lakwambilira la Cisipanishi, likang’anamurika ca m’ma 1200 C.E. Ndipo mazgu ghake ghanyake ghakusangika mu buku lakucemeka La Fazienda de Ultra Mar. Mu buku ili ŵali kulongosora vya ulendo wa munthu munyake uyo wakaluta ku Israyeli. Kweniso ŵali kulembamo mazgu ghanyake gha mu Baibolo ghakufuma mu Malemba gha Cihebere na Cigiriki.

Themba Alfonso X likawovwira kuti Baibolo ling’anamurike mu Cisipanishi

Ŵalongozgi ŵa machalichi ŵakakondwa nalo yayi Baibolo la Cisipanishi ili. Ntheura, mu 1234 C.E., ŵalara ŵa Msumba wa Tarragona ŵakalangura kuti mabuku ghose agho ghali na mazgu gha mu Baibolo ghawocheke. Ndipouli, languro ili likakanizga yayi kung’anamura Mabaibolo ghanyake. Ntheura, Themba Alfonso X (1252-1284), likakhumba kuti Baibolo ling’anamurike mu Cisipanishi. Themba ili ndilo ŵakuti likambiska vyakuti ŵanthu ŵalembenge Cisipanishi. Mabaibolo gha Cisipanishi agho ghakaŵako pa nyengo iyi ni Pre-Alfonsine na Alfonsine. Kweni Baibolo la Alfonsine ndilo likaŵa na mabuku ghanandi agho ghakang’anamurika.

Mapepara gha Baibolo la Pre-Alfonsine (kumazere) na Alfonsine (kumalyero)

Mabaibolo ghaŵiri agha ghakawovwiraso comene kuti ŵanthu ŵamanye makora Cisipanishi. Munthu munyake wakusambira comene wakayowoyapo vya Baibolo la Alfonsine wakati: “Uyo wakang’anamuranga Baibolo ili, wakayigwira nchito. . . . Mazgu ghake ngapusu nakuti munthu uyo wakuleka kumanya makora Cilatini wangasuzgika yayi kupulika.”

Mabaibolo gha Cisipanishi ŵakaghang’anamura kufuma ku Baibolo la Cilatini la Vulgate, m’malo mwa Cihebere panji Cigiriki. Kweni kwamba mu 1300 C.E., nkhwantha zinyake za Ciyuda zikang’anamura mabuku gha Malemba gha Cihebere ghanandi mu Cisipanishi kufuma ku Cihebere ceneko. Pa nyengo iyi Ŵayuda ŵanandi ŵa ku Spain ŵakakhalanga ku Europe, mwakuti cikaŵa cipusu kwa awo ŵakang’anamuranga mabuku agha kusanga mabuku gha Cihebere. *

Limoza mwa Mabaibolo agha ni Baibolo lakucemeka Alba ilo likamara kung’anamurika mu 1400 C.E. Munthu munyake wakumanyikwa comene ku Spain wakaphalira Moisés, msambizgi Waciyuda kuti wang’anamure Baibolo mu Cisipanishi. Pakaŵa vifukwa viŵiri ivyo wakacira nthena. Iyo wakati cakwamba, “Mabaibolo agho tili nagho ngakubudika,” ndipo caciŵiri, “Ise tikukhumba Baibolo ilo mazgu ghanonono ŵaghalongosora.” Ivyo wakapempha vikulongora kuti ŵanthu pa nyengo iyi ŵakakhumbanga kuti para ŵakuŵazga Baibolo ŵalipulikiskenge. Vikulongoraso kuti Mabaibolo gha Cisipanishi ghakaŵa kuti ghathandazgika kale mu Spain.

 Awo ŵakang’anamura panji kukopera Mabaibolo gha Cisipanishi, ŵakawovwira comene kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵazge Baibolo la mu ciyowoyero cawo. Munthu munyake wakulemba mdauko wakati, “ŵanthu ku Spain ŵakalimanyanga makora Baibolo kuluska ŵa ku Germany na England.”

Juan Orts González wakulemba mdauko wakati: “Ŵanthu ku Spain ŵakalimanyanga makora Baibolo kuluska ku Germany na England.”

Kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m’ma 1400 C.E. mu Spain ŵakakanizga kuti munthu waŵe na Baibolo la Cisipanishi panji kulutizga kung’anamura Mabaibolo. Ndipo ŵakakhala kwambura Baibolo vyaka 300. Nangauli vikaŵa nthena, kweni ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵacikanga ŵakalutizga kung’anamura Mabaibolo agha ku vyaru vyaŵene ndipo ŵakaghatumizganga ku Spain mwakubisilizga. *

Nkhani iyi yikulongora kuti ŵakususka ŵayezgera umu na umu kuti ŵajandizge Mazgu gha Ciuta Wankhongonozose, kweni ŵatondeka.—Salmo 83:1; 94:20.

Nkhwantha zinandi zikafwilirapo kuti mu Spain muŵe Baibolo. Ndivyoso ŵanthu ŵanji ŵacita, lekani Baibolo likusangika mu Cilatini, Cigoth, Ciarabu na Cisipanishi. Ndipo ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakuyowoya Cisipanishi ŵali na Baibolo la ciyowoyero cawo.

^ ndime 10 Viyowoyero ivi ni Castilia, Catalan, Galician, na Portuguese.

^ ndime 17 Mazuŵa ghano ŵanthu pafupifupi 540 miliyoni ŵakuyowoya Cisipanishi.

^ ndime 20 Wonani nkhani ya mutu wakuti “Alfonso de Zamora Wakang’anamura Zina la Ciuta nga Umo Likaŵira mu Malemba Ghakwambilira” mu Gongwe la Mulinda la Disembala 1, 2011.

^ ndime 23 Wonani nkhani yakuti “Nkhondo ya Casiodoro de Reina Kaamba ka Baibulo la Chispanya,” mu Gongwe la Mulinda la Ciceŵa la Juni 1 1996.