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Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova

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GONGWE LA MULINDA (LAKUSAMBIRA PA MPINGO) FEBRUARY 2015

Kovwira Ŵanthu Kumanya ‘Chisambizgo cha Yehova’

Kovwira Ŵanthu Kumanya ‘Chisambizgo cha Yehova’

‘Nduna . . . yikagomezga, pakuti yikazizikika na chisambizgo cha Yehova.’—MIL. 13:12.

1-3. Kasi ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakasangana na masuzgo wuli apo ŵakapharazganga makani ghawemi “ku mitundu yose”?

YESU KHRISTU wakapeleka ntchito yikuru chomene ku ŵasambiri ŵake. Iyo wakati: “Lutaninge mukazgore ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose kuŵa ŵasambiri.” Ntheura ‘makani ghawemi gha ufumu, ghakenera kupharazgika mu charu chose kuti uŵe ukaboni ku mitundu yose.’—Mat. 24:14; 28:19.

2 Ŵasambiri ŵakatemwanga Yesu, kweniso ŵakatemwanga kupharazga makani ghawemi. Kweni ŵakamanyanga makora yayi umo ŵachitirenge kuti ŵafiske ntchito ya kupharazga. Panyengo iyo, ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakaŵa ŵachoko chomene. Iwo ŵakapharazganga kuti Yesu ni mwana wa Chiuta, kweni wakakomeka. Ŵanthu ŵakawonanga ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu kuŵa “ŵambura kusambira ndiposo ŵanthu bweka.” (Mil. 4:13) Ŵaliska ŵakasambizganga waka maluso gha ŵanthu. Uthenga uwo ŵasambiri ŵakapharazganga, ukasuskanga ivyo  ŵakasambizganga ŵalongozgi ŵa visopa. Ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakaŵa ŵakuyuyulika. Ŵaroma ŵakawonanga Ŵaisrayeli kuŵa ŵapasi chomene.

3 Yesu wakachenjezgerathu ŵasambiri ŵake kuti ŵazamutinkhika na kutambuzgika ndipo ŵanyake ŵazamukomeka. (Luka 21:16, 17) Ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakeneranga kuzizipizga vinandi. Ŵanthu ŵakaŵawukiranga, ntchimi zitesi zikaŵa palipose, kweniso vinthu viheni vikaŵa palipose. (Mat. 24:10-12) Kasi ŵakatenge ŵafiskenge wuli kupharazga makani ghawemi “ku vigaŵa vyakutali chomene vya charu chapasi”? (Mil. 1:8) Ŵakwenera kuti ŵakafipanga mtima umo ŵachitirenge.

4. Kasi ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakapharazga m’paka nkhu?

4 Ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakakumana na masuzgo ghanandi, kweni ŵakalutilira kupharazga makani ghawemi mu Yerusalemu, Samariya na chigaŵa chose cha Ufumu wa Roma. Pakati pajumpha vyaka 30, makani ghawemi ghakaŵa kuti ‘ghapharazgika mu chilengiwa chose kusi ku mtambo,’ ndipo ‘ghakapambika vipambi na kuthandazgika mu charu chose.’ (Kol. 1:6, 23) Ivyo mpositole Paulosi wakayowoya na kuchita apo wakaŵa pa chilwa cha Kipro vikawovwira nduna Yachiroma, Seregiyo Paulosi. Nduna iyi ‘yikagomezga, pakuti yikazizikika na chisambizgo cha Yehova.’—Ŵazgani Milimo 13:6-12.

5. (a) Kasi Yesu wakaŵaphalira vichi ŵasambiri ŵake? (b) Kasi buku linyake likati vichi?

5 Ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakamanyanga kuti paŵekha ŵangakwaniska yayi kupharazga. Yesu wakaŵaphalira kuti waŵenge nawo kweniso mzimu utuŵa uzamuŵawovwira. (Mat. 28:20) Umo vinthu vikaŵira mu Ufumu wa Roma, vikawovwira chomene kuti ŵasambiri ŵapharazge makora. Buku linyake likati Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ŵakamba kupharazga pambere 100 A.D yindafike. Iyi yikaŵa nyengo yiwemi chomene ya kwambira ntchito yakupharazga. Pamanyuma Ŵakhristu ŵakamanya kuti Chiuta ndiyo wakaŵawovwira kuti ŵachite ntchito iyi.—Evangelism in the Early Church.

6. (a) Kasi mu nkhani iyi tisambirenge vichi? (b) Kasi mu nkhani yapanthazi tizamusambira vichi?

6 Kasi Chiuta ndiyo wakasintha vinthu mu Ufumu wa Roma kuti ŵasambiri ŵapharazgenge makora? Baibolo likuyowoyapo yayi. Yehova wakakhumbanga kuti ŵasambiri ŵapharazge makani ghawemi, kweni Satana wakakhumbanga yayi. Mu nkhani iyi, tiwonenge ivyo vikawovwira ŵasambiri ŵakwambilira kupharazga makani ghawemi kwambura suzgo. Mu nkhani yapanthazi, tizamusambira ivyo vikutiwovwira mazuŵa ghano kuti tipharazge makani ghawemi pa charu chose.

MTENDE WA ŴAROMA

7. Kasi vinthu vikaŵa wuli mu Ufumu wa Roma? Chifukwa wuli yikaŵa nyengo yiwemi chomene?

7 Mu nyengo ya Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira, mu Ufumu wa Roma mukaŵa mtende. Ntheura ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakapharazganga mwakufwatuka. Panyengo iyo, pakaŵavya awo ŵakawukiranga Boma la Roma. Nkhondo zikaŵangako apo na apo nga umo Yesu wakayowoyera. (Mat. 24:6) Ŵaroma ŵakaparanya Yerusalemu mu 70 C.E., kweniso nyengo zinyake ŵakachitanga nkhondo chifukwa cha kulimbirana mphaka. Kweni mtende uwo ukaŵa mu Ufumu wa Roma ukawovwira ŵasambiri kuti ŵapharazgenge mwakufwatuka. Ufumu wa  Roma ukaŵa pa mtende kwa vyaka 200. Buku linyake likuti pa nyengo iyi ŵanthu ŵakaŵa pa mtende nyengo yitali kuluska kumasinda kose.

8. Pakuti mu Ufumu wa Roma mukaŵa mtende, vikawovwira wuli ŵasambiri pa ntchito yakupharazga?

8 Pati pajumpha vyaka pafupifupi 300 Yesu wati wafwa, munthu munyake wakusambira chomene, zina lake Origen, wakalemba ivyo vikachitikanga apo mu Ufumu wa Roma mukaŵa mtende. Iyo wakati Ŵakhristu ŵakapharazga mwakufwatuka mu vyaru vyose ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa Ufumu wa Roma. Ŵanthu ŵakakhalanga mwamtende mu vikaya vyawo kwambura nkhondo. Ntheura, ichi chikawovwira kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵapulike ivyo ŵasambiri ŵakapharazganga pakuyowoya za chitemwa na mtende. Nangauli Ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakasuskikanga, kweni ŵakapharazga makani ghawemi kulikose mu Ufumu wa Roma.—Ŵazgani Ŵaroma 12:18-21.

MENDERO GHAKAŴA GHAPUSU

9, 10. Chifukwa wuli mendero ghakaŵa ghapusu ku ŵasambiri?

9 Mu Ufumu wa Roma mukaŵa misewu yiwemi yinandi. Chikaŵa chipusu kwenda kufuma ku chigaŵa chinyake kuluta ku chinyake. Ŵasilikari Ŵachiroma ŵakendanga mu misewu iyi kuti ŵavikilire ŵanthu kweniso chigaŵa chose cha Ufumu wa Roma. Misewu iyi yikajumphanga mu nkhorongo, mu viparamba, na mu mapiri. Ŵakhristu nawo ŵakendanga mu misewu iyi kukapharazga makani ghawemi.

10 Ŵaroma ŵakendangaso pa maboti. Ŵakendanga mu nyanja na milonga. Ŵakhristu nawo ŵakakweranga maboti kuluta ku vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana kukapharazga. Ŵakakhumbikwiranga kuŵa na pasipoti yayi panji makalata gha paulendo. Ŵankhungu ŵakaŵa ŵachoko chifukwa ŵakawopanga kulangika. Maulendo gha pa nyanja ghakaŵa ghakofya yayi chifukwa pakendanga sitima za ŵasilikari. Kanandi Paulosi wakaŵanga pangozi para wakwenda pa nyanja, chifukwa nyengo zinyake maboti agho wakakweranga ghakaswekanga. Kweni Baibolo lindayowoyepo kuti wakakumanapo na vigeŵenga pa maulendo gha pa nyanja. Ntheura mendero ghakaŵa ghapusu.—2 Kor. 11:25, 26.

CHIYOWOYERO

Chikaŵanga chipusu kusanga lemba mu buku la codex (Wonani ndime 12)

11. Chifukwa wuli ŵasambiri ŵakayowoyanga Chigiriki?

11 Alekizanda Mukuru wakathereska vigaŵa vinandi ivyo vikaŵa pasi pa Ufumu wa Roma. Ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakasambira kuyowoya Chigiriki chakuchemeka Koine. Ntheura Ŵakhristu ŵakapharazganga mu Chigiriki. Pakupharazga ŵakakoranga mazgu mu Malemba Ghachihebere chifukwa ghakang’anamulika mu Chigiriki. Ŵanandi ŵakalimanyanga Baibolo la Septuagint, ilo Ŵayuda awo ŵakakhalanga ku Eguputo ŵakang’anamura kufuma ku Chihebere. Ŵalembi ŵa Baibolo ŵakamalizga kulemba Baibolo mu Chigiriki. Chigiriki chikaŵa na mazgu ghanandi ntheura chikaŵa chipusu kuti ŵanthu ŵasambire Baibolo. Ŵakhristu ŵakaŵa ŵakukolerana chomene chifukwa ŵakayowoyanga Chigiriki.

12. (a) Kasi codex ni vichi? Chifukwa wuli buku ili likaŵa lipusu kuluska mpukutu? (b) Kasi Ŵakhristu ŵanandi ŵakamba pawuli kugwiliskira ntchito mabuku?

12 Kasi Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito vichi mu uteŵeti?  Pakwamba ŵakagwiliskiranga ntchito mipukutu. Kweni mipukutu yikaŵanga yakusuzga pakusanga malemba na kunyamura. Usange munthu wakukhumba kusanga lemba wakeneranga kuzungulura mpukutu wose, paumaliro na kuwuzingaso. Mipukutu yikaŵanga na malemba mphepete yimoza. Buku la Makani Ghawemi la Mateyu likakwananga mpukutu umoza. Pamasinda ŵakaŵa na codex. Ili likaŵa buku lakwamba. Munthu wakasuzgikanga yayi kusanga lemba ilo wakukhumba. Nyengo iyo Ŵakhristu ŵakambira kugwiliskira ntchito codex yikumanyikwa makora yayi. Kweni ŵakusanda mdauko ŵakuti Ŵakhristu ŵakamba kugwiliskira ntchito buku la codex pamanyuma pa 100 C.E., ndipo ŵanandi ŵakaŵa nalo.

DANGO LA ŴAROMA

13, 14. (a) Kasi dango la Ŵaroma likamovwira wuli Paulosi? (b) Kasi dango la Ŵaroma likaŵawovwira wuli Ŵakhristu?

13 Dango la Ŵaroma likawovwira chomene Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira. Paulosi wakaŵa Muroma, ntheura wakendanga mwakufwatuka. Apo wakaŵa ku Yerusalemu, ŵasilikari ŵa Roma ŵakamukora ndipo ŵakakhumbanga kumuthyapura. Kweni wakaŵaphalira kuti nayo ni Muroma. Iyo wakakumbuska mulara wa ŵasilikari kuti dango likukana kuthyapura Muroma pambere ŵandamusange na mulandu. Ntheura, ‘ŵanthu awo ŵakaŵa pafupi kumufumba na kumuyuzga ŵakafumako kwa iyo; ndipo mulongozgi wa ŵankhondo wakawopa pakuwona kuti wakaŵa Muroma ndiposo kuti wakamukaka.’—Mil. 22:25-29.

14 Pakuti Paulosi wakaŵa Muroma, dango la Ŵaroma likamuvikilira apo wakaŵa ku Filipi. (Mil. 16:35-40) Apo ŵanthu ŵakali ŵakawukira Ŵakhristu ku Efeso, mulara wa msumba wakaŵaphalira kuti ivyo ŵakachitanga vikasuskananga na dango. (Mil. 19:35-41) Apo Paulosi wakaŵa ku Kesareya, wakapempha kuti wakawonane na themba la Romu. Iyo wakavikilira makani ghawemi nanga mpha maso gha themba la Romu. (Mil. 25:8-12) Ntheura dango la Ŵaroma likawovwira Ŵakhristu “pakuvikilira na kukhozgera” wanangwa wawo wa kupharazga.—Fil. 1:7.

 KUMBININIKA KWA ŴAYUDA

15. Kasi Ŵayuda ŵanandi ŵakambininikira nkhu?

15 Ŵayuda ŵakambininikira mu vyaru vinandi. Ntheura makani ghawemi ghakapharazgika mu vyaru vinandi. Vilimika mahandiredi ghanandi kumanyuma, Ŵayuda ŵakatolekera ku wuzga ku Asiriya. Pakati pajumpha nyengo, Ŵayuda ŵanyake ŵakatolekera ku Babuloni. Ŵaperesiya ŵakati ŵathereska Babuloni, Ŵayuda ŵanandi ŵakamba kuwusika na ufumu wa Peresiya. (Est. 9:30) Apo Yesu wakaŵa pa charu chapasi, Ŵayuda ŵakasangikanga mu vigaŵa vyose vya Ufumu wa Romu nga nkhu Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, na vigaŵa vinyake ku North Africa. Pa ŵanthu 60 miliyoni mu ufumu uwu ŵanthu 4 miliyoni ŵakaŵa Ŵayuda. Nangauli ŵakambininikira mu vigaŵa vyakupambanapambana, kweni Ŵayuda ŵakaleka yayi kusopa.—Mat. 23:15.

16, 17. (a) Kasi ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakasanga chandulo wuli chifukwa cha kumbininika kwa Ŵayuda? (b) Kasi Ŵakhristu ŵaunenesko mazuŵa ghano ŵakuchita wuli pakusopa?

16 Ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakasambira Malemba Ghachihebere na vigomezgo vya Ŵayuda chifukwa Ŵayuda ŵakasangikanga mu vyaru vinandi. Ŵakasambira kuti kuli Chiuta yumoza waunenesko ndiposo kuti wose awo ŵakumuteŵetera ŵakwenera kulondezga malango ghake. Ŵakasambira kuti Malemba Ghachihebere ghakapelekeka na Chiuta ndiposo kuti mukusangika mauchimi ghanandi ghakuyowoya vya Mesiya. (Luka 24:44) Ntheura apo Ŵakhristu ŵakapharazganga makani ghawemi, Ŵayuda na ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yinyake ŵakaŵa kuti ŵakumanya kale vinyake ivyo Ŵakhristu ŵakapharazganga. Paulosi wakalutanga ku ŵanthu awo ŵangategherezga makani ghawemi. Kanandi wakalutanga mu masunagoge na kudumbiskana na Ŵayuda vya mu Malemba.—Ŵazgani Milimo 17:1, 2.

17 Ŵayuda ŵakawungananga mu masunagoge panji malo ghanyake kuti ŵasope. Ŵakimbanga sumu, kulomba, na kudumbiskana Malemba. Ndimo Ŵakhristu ŵaunenesko ŵakuchitira mazuŵa ghano.

YEHOVA WAKAŴAWOVWIRA KUPHARAZGA

18, 19. (a) Kasi ivyo vikachitika mu Ufumu wa Romu vikawovwira wuli Ŵakhristu? (b) Kasi nkhani iyi yamovwirani kuti mumuwonenge wuli Yehova?

18 Mu mdauko wose wa ŵanthu, nyengo ya Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira yikaŵa yapadera chomene. Mu ufumu wa Romu mukaŵa mtende, ŵanthu ŵakayowoyanga chiyowoyero chimoza, ŵanthu ŵakaŵa ŵakuvikilirika na dango. Mendero ghakaŵa ghapusu, ndipo ŵanthu mu vyaru vinandi ŵakamanyanga vinandi vya Ŵayuda na Malemba Ghachihebere. Ivi vikawovwira Ŵakhristu kuti ŵapharazgenge makora.

19 Vilimika 400 pambere Yesu wandize pa charu chapasi, Plato, munthu wavinjeru wa ku Greece, wakalemba kuti chikaŵa chinonono chomene kuti ŵanthu ŵamanye Mlengi. Kweni Yesu wakati: ‘Vinthu ivyo ni vyambura machitiko ku ŵanthu ni vyamachitiko kwa Chiuta.’ (Luka 18:27) Nadi, Yehova ndiyo wakawovwira kuti ntchito ya kupharazga yende makora. Iyo wakukhumba kuti “ŵanthu ŵa mitundu yose” ŵapulike makani ghawemi na kumumanya makora. (Mat. 28:19) Nkhani yakulondezgapo yizamulongosora umo ntchito ya kupharazga makani ghawemi pa charu chose yikwendera mazuŵa ghano.