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Gongwe la Mulinda  |  Na. 6 2017

Chifukwa Wuli Pali Mabaibolo Ghanandi?

Chifukwa Wuli Pali Mabaibolo Ghanandi?

Chifukwa wuli mazuŵa ghano kuli Mabaibolo ghanandi? Kasi mukuwona kuti Mabaibolo ghasono agha ghangamovwirani kupulikiska Malemba panji yayi? Para mungamanya makora mipukutu iyo ŵakagwiliskira ntchito pakung’anamura Mabaibolo agha, vingamovwirani kuti mughagwiliskirenge ntchito mwamahara.

Chakwamba, tiyeni timanye uyo wakalemba Baibolo, ndipo wakalilemba pawuli?

BAIBOLO LAKWAMBILIRA

Baibolo lili kugaŵika mu vigaŵa viŵiri. Chigaŵa chakwamba chili na mabuku 39 ndipo chili na “mazgu ghakupatulika gha Chiuta.” (Ŵaroma 3:2) Chiuta wakatuma ŵanalume ŵakugomezgeka kuti ŵalembe mabuku agha mwakovwirika na mzimu utuŵa. Chigaŵa ichi chikamba kulembeka mu 1513 B.C.E. na kumara mu 443 B.C.E, ivyo ni vyaka pafupifupi 1,100. Mabuku ghanandi ghakalembeka mu Chihebere, lekani chigaŵa ichi chikuchemeka kuti Malemba Ghachihebere ndipo ŵanyake ŵakuti Testamente la Kale.

Chigaŵa chachiŵiri cha Baibolo chili na mabuku 27 ndipo nacho ni “mazgu gha Chiuta.” (1 Ŵatesalonika 2:13) Chiuta wakatuma ŵasambiri ŵakugomezgeka ŵa Yesu kuti ŵalembe chigaŵa ichi mwakovwirika na mzimu utuŵa. Ŵakamba kulemba chigaŵa ichi mu 41 C.E. na kumara mu 98 C.E, ivyo ni vyaka pafupifupi 60. Mabuku ghanandi mu chigaŵa ichi ghakalembeka mu Chigiriki, lekani ghakumanyikwa kuti Malemba Ghachigiriki ndipo ŵanyake ŵakuti Testamente la Sono.

Ntheura Baibolo lose lili na mabuku 66 umo muli uthenga wa Chiuta wakuti ŵanthu wose ŵawupulike. Kweni chifukwa wuli ŵanthu ŵakung’anamuraso Mabaibolo? Pali vifukwa vitatu vikuruvikuru.

  • Kuti ŵanthu ŵaŵazgenge Baibolo mu chiyowoyero chawo.

  • Kuti ŵanozge ivyo vikabudika pakukopera, na kuwezgeramo fundo izo zili mu mipukutu yakwambilira.

  •   Kuti ŵalembe kuyana na umo ŵanthu ŵakuyowoyera pasono.

Wonani umo fundo zitatu izi zikawovwilira pakung’anamura Mabaibolo ghanyake ghaŵiri ghakale.

BAIBOLO LACHIGIRIKI LA SEPTUAGINT

Vyaka pafupifupi 300 pambere Yesu wandize pa charu chapasi, Ŵayuda ŵanyake ŵakamba kung’anamura Baibolo kufuma ku Malemba Ghachihebere kuya ku Chigiriki. Baibolo ilo ŵakang’anamura likumanyikwa kuti Greek Septuagint. Chifukwa wuli ŵakang’anamura Baibolo ili? Kuti ŵawovwire Ŵayuda ŵanandi awo pa nyengo iyo ŵakayowoyanga Chigiriki pera kuti nawo ŵamanye “malemba ghatuŵa.”—2 Timote 3:15.

Padera pa Ŵayuda, Baibolo la Septuagint likawovwiraso ŵanandi awo ŵakayowoyanga Chigiriki kuti ŵamanye ivyo Baibolo likusambizga. Kasi likawovwira wuli? Profesa W. F. Howard wakati: “Kwambira waka mu nyengo ya ŵapositole, ŵamishonale ŵa Matchalitchi Ghachikhristu ŵakendanga na Baibolo ili sunagoge na sunagoge na ‘kulongosolera ŵanthu kuti malemba ghakuti Yesu ndiyo ni Mesiya.’” (Milimo 17:3, 4; 20:20) F. F. Bruce wakati ivi vikapangiska Ŵayuda “kuti ŵaleke kutemwa Baibolo ili.”

Apo ŵasambiri ŵa Yesu ŵakapokeranga mabuku Ghachigiriki gha Malemba Ghachikhristu, ŵakaghawunjika pamoza na Baibolo la Septuagint ilo ŵakaling’anamura kufuma ku Malemba Ghachihebere, na kupanga buku limoza ilo lero tikuti Baibolo.

BAIBOLO LA CHILATIN LA VULGATE

Pati pajumpha vyaka 300 Baibolo lose lati lamara kulembeka, Jerome wakang’anamura Baibolo la Chilatini ilo likamanyikwanga kuti Latin Vulgate. Chifukwa wuli wakang’anamura Baibolo ili uku Mabaibolo ghanyake Ghachilatini ghakaŵako kale? Buku linyake likuti Jerome wakakhumbanga kuti wanozge “ivyo vikabudika, kuwuskamo ivyo ŵakasazgiramo na kuwezgeramo ivyo ŵakawuskamo.”—The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Jerome wakanozga vinandi ivyo vikabudika. Kweni pamanyuma, ŵalongozgi ŵa matchalitchi ŵakachita chinthu chinyake chiheni. Iwo ŵakati Baibolo la Chilatini la Vulgate ndilo lekha likwenera kugwira ntchito, ndipo ŵakalutilira kugwiliskira ntchito Baibolo  ili nyengo yitali. Ivyo ŵakachita vikapangiska kuti ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵaleke kumanya ivyo Baibolo likusambizga chifukwa ŵakamanyanga yayi Chilatini.

PAKANG’ANAMULIKASO MABAIBOLO GHANYAKE

Pamasinda, ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakalutilira kung’anamura Mabaibolo. Limoza lake likuchemeka Syriac Peshitta ilo likang’anamulika m’ma 400 C.E. Kweni m’ma 13 C.E. ndipo ŵanthu ŵakaŵikapo mtima chomene kwamba kung’anamura Mabaibolo mu viyowoyero ivyo ŵanthu bweka ŵakayowoyanga.

Chakuumaliro wa m’ma 13 C.E., John Wycliffe wakaŵikapo mtima chomene kuti Baibolo lisangikengeso mu Chingelezi chifukwa ndicho ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakayowoyanga ku England. Pamasinda, Johannes Gutenberg wakabowozga nthowa zinyake zakupulintira izo zikawovwira chomene kuti Mabaibolo ghasangikenge mu viyowoyero ivyo ŵanandi ŵakayowoyanga ku Europe.

Pakuti Mabaibolo Ghachingelezi ghakang’anamurika ghanandi, ŵalembi ŵanyake ŵakawona kuti ntchiwemi yayi kung’anamuraso Mabaibolo ghanyake mu chiyowoyero ichi. M’ma 1700 C.E., mulongozgi munyake wa tchalitchi, John Lewis wakati: “Para pajumpha nyengo, chiyowoyero chikusintha. Ntheura ntchakuzirwa kusandaso chiyowoyero cha Mabaibolo ghakale na kuchilemba kuyana na umo ŵanthu ŵakuyowoyera pasono.”

Mazuŵa ghano, awo ŵakusanda vya Baibolo ŵakumanya makora viyowoyero vyakwambilira kweniso pasangika mipukutu yinyake yakale. Ivi vikovwira chomene pakung’anamura Mabaibolo. Nakuti uwu ni mwaŵi wapadera chomene.

Ntheura mazuŵa ghano ntchakuzirwa kugwiliskira ntchito Mabaibolo agho ghang’anamurikaso. Ndipouli, tikwenera kuchenjera na Mabaibolo ghanyake. Kweni para awo ŵakung’anamura ŵakutemwa chomene Chiuta, Baibolo ilo ŵangang’anamura lingatovwira chomene.