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GONGWE LA MULINDA (LAKUSAMBIRA PA MPINGO) OCTOBER 2016

Kasi Mukumanya?

Kasi Mukumanya?

 Kasi mbunenesko kuti kale ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakaseŵanga duru mu minda yaŵene?

Buku la Digest ilo Fumu Justinian yikalemba mu 1468, ndimoza mwa mabuku ghakale agho ghakulongosora vyamalango

PA MATEYU 13:24-26 Yesu wakati: “Ufumu wakuchanya ukuyana na munthu uyo wakaseŵa mbuto yiwemi mu munda wake. Apo ŵanthu ŵakaŵa mu tulo, mulwani wake wakiza na kuseŵamo duru mukati mu tirigu, ndipo wakaluta. Mbuto yikati yaphuka na kupambika vipambi, duru nalo likawoneka.” Ŵanthu ŵanandi awo ŵakulemba mabuku ŵakukayika usange ivyo Yesu wakayowoya pa lemba ili vikachitikanga nadi. Ndipouli, mabuku gha malango ghakale gha Ŵaroma ghakulongora kuti ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakapandanga nadi duru mu minda ya ŵanyawo.

Dikishonare yinyake ya mazgu gha mu Baibolo yikuti: “Malango gha Ŵaroma ghakakanizganga kupanda duru mu munda wa munyako na chilato cha kuwezgera. Ntheura ukaŵanga mulandu ukuru kuchita nthena. Kuti paŵe dango lakukanizga kaluso aka, ndikuti kanandi vikachitikanga nadi.” Munthu munyake wakumanya vyamalango (Alastair Kerr) wakalongosora kuti mu 533 C.E., fumu ya Ŵaroma, Justinian, yikalemba buku la Digest. Buku ili likulongosora malango gha Ŵaroma kweniso ivyo ŵanthu ŵanyake awo ŵakamanyanga makora malango mu nyengo ya Ŵaroma ŵakalemba cha m’ma 100-250 C.E. Munyake mwa ŵanthu ŵakumanya malango wakaŵa Ulpian. Buku ili likuti Ulpian wakalemba za mulandu wakukhwaskana na kupanda duru mu munda wamwene uwo ukeruzgika na Celsus, uyo wakaŵako pamanyuma pa 100 C.E. Munthu munyake wakapanda duru mu munda wamwene ndipo duru likananga mbuto. Buku la Digest likuti kuyana na malango gha Ŵaroma, munthu uyo wapanda duru mu munda waŵene wakeneranga kumulipira mweneko wa munda.

Nkhaza zanthena izi zikachitikanga mu Ufumu wa Roma, ndipo zikulongora kuti ivyo Yesu wakayowoya mu ntharika yake ya pa Mateyu 13:24-26 vikachitikanga nadi.

Kasi Ŵaroma ŵakapeleka wanangwa wuli ku ŵalongozgi Ŵachiyuda mu nyengo ya Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira?

MU NYENGO ya Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira, chigaŵa cha Yudeya chikaŵa pasi pa kazembe wa boma la Ŵaroma. Kazembe waliyose wakaŵanga na ŵasilikari ŵake. Mulimo wake ukuru ukaŵa wakusonkheska msonkho na kuwoneseska kuti ŵanthu ŵakukhala mwamtende. Boma la Ŵaroma likaŵa na mazaza kulanga munthu waliyose uyo waswa malango. Ntheura ŵalongozgi Ŵachiyuda ŵakaŵanga na wanangwa wakuchita chilichose, chikuru ŵakuleka kuswa malango gha Ŵaroma.

Khoti la Sanihedirini likweruzga mulandu

Sanihedirini likaŵa khoti likuru chomene la Ŵayuda ilo likeruzganga milandu yikuruyikuru. Kweniso pakaŵa makhoti ghachokoghachoko mu chigaŵa chose cha Yudeya. Makhoti agha ndigho ghakeruzganga milandu yichokoyichoko, ndipo ŵakazembe Ŵachiroma ŵakanjilirangapo yayi pa milandu iyi. Kweni para munthu wasangika na mulandu uwo chilango chake ni nyifwa, boma la Ŵaroma likazomerezganga yayi kuti ŵalongozgi Ŵachiyuda ŵeruzge mulandu wanthena uwu. Ndipouli, Ŵaroma ŵakanjilirapo yayi pa mulandu wa Stefano, nakuti ndiwo wekha uwo ŵakaleka kunjilirapo. Khoti la Sanihedirini ndilo likeruzga kuti Stefano wakomeke mwakudinyika na malibwe.—Mil. 6:8-15; 7:54-60.

Enya, khoti la Sanihedirini likaŵa na mazaza ghakuru. Nkhwantha yinyake (Emil Schürer) yikalemba kuti: “Boma la Ŵaroma likazomerezganga yayi ŵalongozgi Ŵachiyuda kweruzga nkhani zikuruzikuru nga ni mulandu wakuwukira boma. Iwo ŵakeneranga kuyowoyapo dankha pambere munthu wandapike chilango.” Chiyelezgero pa nkhani iyi ni ivyo vikachitikira Paulosi apo kazembe Kilaudiyo Lisiyasi wakaŵa mulongozgi wa ŵasilikari ŵa Ŵaroma. Kazembe uyu wakathaska Paulosi uyo wakaŵa Muroma kuti ŵanthu ŵaleke kumutimba ndipo ŵakamujalira mu jele.—Mil. 23:26-30.