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Ŵakaboni ŵa Yehova

Chitumbuka

Wukani!  |  June 2015

 MBIRI

Galileo

Galileo

Mu vyaka vya pakati pa 1300 na 1500, ŵasayansi ŵa ku Europe ŵakamba kupulikiska kuti umo dazi likwendera vikupambana na ivyo Tchalitchi la Katolika likasambizganga. Munthu yumoza uyo wakawonaso umo dazi likwendera wakaŵa Galileo Galilei.

PAMBERE Galileo wandababike, ŵanthu ŵanandi ŵakagomezganga kuti dazi, na nyenyezi ndivyo vikuzingilira charu. Tchalitchi la Katolika nalo mwachibulumutira likagomezganga fundo iyi.

Ivyo Galileo wakawona na telesikopu yake vikapambana na ivyo ŵasayansi ŵanyake ŵakasambizganga. Ivyo wakawona vikamovwira kumanya kuti dazi likuzingilira palekha, ndipo vikawovwiraso kuti ŵanthu ŵamanye vinandi vyakukhwaskana na dazi ndiposo vinthu vinyake vya kuchanya. Ivi vikapambananga na ivyo Tchalitchi la Katolika likasambizganga.

SAYANSI NA TCHALITCHI

Pambere Galileo wandalaŵiske kuchanya na telesikopu yake, kumasinda kukaŵa wasayansi munyake wa ku Poland, zina lake Nicolaus Copernicus uyo wakasambizganga kuti charu chapasi chikuzingilira dazi. Galileo wakasanda ivyo Copernicus wakalemba, ndipo wakasanga kuti ni vyaunenesko. Pakwamba Galileo wakakhumbanga yayi kuyowoya ivyo wakawona, wakopanga kuti ŵanthu ŵangamunyoza na kumuseka. Wati watondeka kujikora, wakamba kuphalira ŵanthu ivyo wakawona na  telesikopu yake. Ŵasayansi ŵanyake ŵakawona kuti Galileo wakwambiska waka mphindano, ndipo mwaluŵiro ŵaliska ŵa tchalitchi ŵakamba kumunyoza para ŵakupharazga mu matchalitchi ghawo.

Mu 1616, Kadinara Bellarmine, uyo wakaŵa mulongozgi mulara, wakaphalira Galileo kuti Tchalitchi la Katolika lakaka fundo yiphya yakususkana na ivyo Copernicus wakalemba. Wakachiska Galileo kuti walondezge ivyo tchalitchi lakaka. Kufuma pa nyengo iyi, Galileo wakaleka kuyowoya pakweru kuti charu chikuzingilira dazi.

Mu 1623, Papa Urban wa nambara 8, mubwezi wa Galileo, wakamba kulamulira. Ntheura mu 1624, Galileo wakapempha papa uyu kuti wamazge fundo iyo tchalitchi likakaka mu 1616. Kweni papa uyu wakaphalira Galileo kuti walongosore ivyo Copernicus na Aristotle ŵakalemba, kwambura kubakira waliyose.

Nangauli papa wakamuphalira kuti waleke kubakira waliyose, kweni Galileo wakalemba buku ilo likaŵa na fundo zakukolerana na Copernicus. (Dialogue on the Great World Systems) Mwaluŵiro, awo ŵakatinkhanga Galileo ŵakati buku ili likunyoza papa, kweniso Galileo wakususka visambizgo vya tchalitchi. Ŵakamofya kuti ŵamutambuzgenge, kweniso ŵakamuchichizga kuti waleke kukolerana na visambizgo vya Copernicus. Mu 1633, Khoti la Ŵaroma likadumura kuti Galileo wakhalenge pa nyumba yake pera, kweniso likakanizga ŵanthu kuŵazga ivyo wakalemba. Galileo wakafwa pa Janyuwale 8, 1642. Wakafwira pa nyumba yake ku Arcetri, pafupi na Florence.

Papa Yohane Paulo wachiŵiri wakazomera kuti Tchalitchi la Katolika likachita makora yayi kususka Galileo

Kwa vyaka vinandi, mabuku gha Galileo ghakaŵa pa gulu la mabuku agho Ŵakatolika ŵakakanizgika kuŵazga. Kweni mu 1979, tchalitchi ili likasandaso ivyo Khoti la Ŵaroma likadumura vyaka 300 kumanyuma. Mu 1992, Papa Yohane Paulo wachiŵiri wakazomera kuti Tchalitchi la Katolika likachita makora yayi kususka Galileo.