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Baibolo la pa Intaneti

MALEMBA GHAKUPATULIKA MU MANG'ANAMULIRO GHA CHARU CHIPHYA

 A3

Kasi Baibolo Lafika Wuli kwa Ise?

Mweneko wa uthenga wa mu Baibolo ndiyo walisunga m’paka sono. Ndiyo wakatuma munthu kulemba mazgu ghakuti:

“Mazgu gha Chiuta withu ghakukhalilira muyirayira.”Yesaya 40:8.

Mazgu agha ngaunenesko, nangauli pasono kulije mipukutu yakale Yachihebere na Chiaramu, * panji Yachigiriki iyo pakwamba pakalembeka mazgu gha Chiuta. Kasi tingagomezga wuli kuti uthenga wa mu Baibolo ukuyana na uwo ukalembeka mu mipukutu yakwambilira?

ŴALEMBI ŴAKASUNGA MAZGU GHA CHIUTA

Malemba Ghachihebere ghakasungika chifukwa Chiuta wakaphalira ŵanthu kuti ŵakoperenge mazgu ghake. * Mwachiyelezgero, Yehova wakaphalira mathemba gha Israyeli kuti mazgu gha mu Dango ŵaghalembenge mu buku. (Dotoronome 17:18) Chiuta wakaphaliraso Ŵalevi kuti ŵasungenge Dango na kusambizga ŵanthu. (Dotoronome 31:26; Nehemiya 8:7) Ŵayuda ŵakati ŵawera ku wuzga ku Babuloni, ŵalembi ŵanyake (Ŵasofiremu) ŵakamba kukopera mazgu gha Chiuta. (Ezira 7:6, mazgu ghamusi) Ŵalembi aŵa ŵakakopera makope ghanandi gha mabuku 39 gha Malemba Ghachihebere.

Kwa vyaka vinandi ŵalembi ŵakalutilira kukopera mabuku agha mwakupwelelera chomene. Mu vyaka vya pakati pa 400 AD na 1500 AD, ŵalembi ŵanyake Ŵachiyuda ŵakuchemeka Ŵamasoreti ŵakalutizga mulimo wakukopera mazgu gha Chiuta. Mupukutu (Leningrad Codex) wakale chomene uwo uli na mabuku ghose gha Malemba Ghachihebere ukalembeka cha m’ma 1008 panji 1009 C.E. Kweni kuzakafika mukatikati mwa vyaka vya  m’ma 1900, mipukutu na viduswa pafupifupi 220, vikasangika pamoza na mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufwa. Mipukutu iyi njakale chomene kuluska wa Leningrad Codex. Para tingayaniska mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufwa na mupukutu wa Leningrad Codex tikusanga fundo iyi: Nangauli mu mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufwa mazgu ghake ghanyake ghakupambana, kweni uthenga wake ngumoza.

Kasi uthenga wa mu mabuku 27 gha Malemba Ghachigiriki wasungika wuli kuti usangike m’paka sono? Mabuku agha ghakalembeka na ŵapositole ŵa Yesu Khristu na ŵasambiri ŵake ŵanyake. Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira nawo ŵakakoperanga mabuku nga umo ŵakachitiranga ŵalembi Ŵachiyuda. (Ŵakolose 4:16) Fumu ya Ŵaroma (Diocletian) na ŵanthu ŵanyake ŵakayezga kuti ŵaparanye mabuku ghose agho Ŵakhristu ŵakwambilira ŵakalemba. Kweni ŵakatondeka ndipo mipukutu yinandi yasungika m’paka sono.

Mabuku agho Ŵakhristu ŵakalemba naghoso ghakang’anamulika mu viyowoyero vinyake. Baibolo likang’anamulika mu viyowoyero vyakale ivi: Chiarimeniya, Chikoputiki, Chietiyopiki, Chijojiya, Chilatini, na Chisiriya.

KUSANKHA MIPUKUTU YACHIHEBERE NA CHIGIRIKI PAKUNG’ANAMURA BAIBOLO

Mipukutu yose yakale ya Baibolo yili na mazgu ghakuyana ndendende yayi. Kasi tingamanya wuli ivyo vikalembeka pakwambilira?

Tiyelezgere kuti msambizgi watuma ŵana 100 kuti ŵakopere nkhani kufuma mu buku linyake. Usange buku ilo ŵakoperangamo lingasoŵa, munthu wangamanya ivyo vikaŵa mu buku ilo para wangayaniska ivyo ŵana ŵakakopera. Mwana waliyose wangabudiska pakukopera, kweni vingachitika yayi kuti ŵana wose ŵabudiske vyakuyana. Mwakuyana waka, para ŵakaswiri ŵakusanda viduswa vinandi na mipukutu yakale ya Baibolo, ŵakumanya apo awo ŵakakoperanga ŵakabudiska kweniso ŵakumanya mazgu agho ghakaŵa mu mipukutu yakwamba.

Pa vinthu vyose ivyo vikalembeka kale, Baibolo lekha ndilo tingayowoya mwakusimikizga kuti uthenga wake uchali undasinthe

Kasi tingagomezga wuli kuti uthenga uwo ukaŵa mu mipukutu yakwamba ndiwo uli mu Baibolo lithu ili? Kaswiri munyake wa masambiro, William H. Green wakayowoyapo vya Malemba Ghachihebere, wakati pa vinthu vyose ivyo vikalembeka kale, Baibolo lekha ndilo tingayowoya mwakusimikizga kuti uthenga wake uchali undasinthe. F. F. Bruce, wakayowoyapo vya Malemba Ghachigiriki,  agho ghakuchemeka Tesitamenti la Sono, wakati pali ukaboni ukuru wakuti uthenga uwo uli mu Tesitamenti la Sono ukuyana na uwo ukaŵa mu mipukutu yakwamba. Uthenga wake ukupambana na vinthu vinyake ivyo ŵanthu ŵakale ŵakalemba, nakuti palije uyo wangasuska fundo iyi. Iyo wakatiso uthenga uwo uli mu Tesitamenti la Sono uŵenge kuti ŵakawutora mu vinthu vinyake vyakulembeka na ŵanthu waka, mphanyi uthenga wake ngwakukayikiska chomene.

Chaputara 40 cha buku la Yesaya mu mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufwa (ya mu vyaka vya m’ma 125 m’paka 100 B.C.E.)

Mipukutu yakwambilira para yayaniskika na iyo ŵakayikopera pamanyuma pakuti pajumpha vya 1,000, pakuŵa mphambano yichoko waka, mphambano yikuŵa waka ya masipeling’i

Chaputara 40 cha buku la Yesaya mu mupukutu (Aleppo Codex) uwo Ŵamasoreti ŵakawukopera cha m’ma 930 C.E.

Malemba Ghachihebere: Baibolo la Chingelezi la Mang’anamuliro gha Charu Chiphya (1953-1960) ŵakaling’anamura kufuma ku buku linyake (Biblia Hebraica) ilo likanozgeka na Rudolf Kittel. Kufuma nyengo iyi, panozgekaso mabuku ghanyake gha Malemba Ghachihebere (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia na Biblia Hebraica Quinta) agho ghali na uthenga wa mu mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufwa kweniso mu mipukutu yinyake yakale chomene. Mabuku ghasono agha ŵakakopera ivyo vili mu Leningrad Codex ndipo ghali na mazgu ghamusi agho ghakalembeka pakuyaniska na ivyo vili mu mabuku ghanyake (Samaritan Pentateuch, Dead Sea Scrolls, Greek Septuagint, Aramaic Targums, Latin Vulgate, na Syriac Peshitta). Pakunozga Baibolo lasono la Chingelezi la Mang’anamuliro gha Charu Chiphya ŵakawonangaso mu mabuku ghanyake agho ghanozgeka sono gha Malemba Ghachihebere (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia na Biblia Hebraica Quinta).

Malemba Ghachigiriki: Cha kuumaliro wa vyaka vya m’ma 1800, B. F. Westcott na F.J.A. Hort, ŵakawona mu mipukutu ya Baibolo iyo yilipo pakunozga Malemba Ghachigiriki ndipo ŵakawona kuti mipukutu iyi yikuyana chomene na ivyo vikalembeka mu mipukutu yakwamba. Mukatikati mwa vyaka vya m’ma 1900, Komiti yakung’anamura Baibolo la Mang’anamuliro gha Charu Chiphya yikagwiliskira ntchito buku ilo likanozgeka na B. F. Westcott na F.J.A. Hort pakung’anamura Baibolo la Chingelezi. Ŵakagwiliskiraso ntchito mipukutu yinyake ya m’ma 100 na 200 C.E. Kufuma nyengo iyi, pasangikaso mipukutu yinyake yakale. Pakunozga Baibolo la Chingelezi, ŵatolera vinyake ivyo vikusangika mu buku linyake (Nestle and Aland) kweniso ivyo vikusangika na wupu unyake (United Bible Societies).

Mabuku agha ghakulongora kuti mavesi ghanyake mu Malemba Ghachigiriki, mu Mabaibolo ghanyake (King James Version) ŵalembi ŵakachita kusazgirako ŵekha mazgu. Mavesi gha mu Baibolo ghakagaŵika mu vyaka vya m’ma 1500, lekani pasono mu Mabaibolo ghanyake mulije mazgu gha mu mavesi agho ŵakasazgirako. Mavesi agha ni: Mateyu 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Mariko 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; Luka 17:36; 23:17; Yohane 5:4; Milimo 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; na Ŵaroma 16:24. Mu Baibolo ili, pa mavesi  agha palembeka waka nambara ya vesi na kachimanyikwiro ako kakulongora mazgu ghamusi.

Mazgu ghatali ghaumaliro gha pa Mariko 16 (mavesi 9-20), mazgu ghafupi ghaumaliro gha Mariko 16, na mazgu gha pa Yohane 7:53–8:11, ghakaŵamo yayi mu mipukutu yakwamba. Ntheura mu Baibolo ili mazgu agha mulije.

Mu Baibolo ili, mazgu ghanyake ghasintha mwakukolerana na ivyo vikaŵa mu mipukutu yakwamba ndipo nkhwantha zinandi zamasambiro zikukolerana navyo. Mwachiyelezgero, mipukutu yinyake yikulongora kuti pa Mateyu 7:13 pakuŵazgika kuti: “Njirani pa chipata chifinyi, chifukwa chipata chikuru chili na nthowa yisani iyo yikuya ku pharanyiko.” Mu Baibolo lakale la Mang’anamuliro gha Caru Ciphya (Mateyu-Uvumbuzi), pa vesi ili palije mazgu ghakuti “chipata chikuru chili.” Kweni kusanda uko kukachitika kwalongora kuti mazgu ghakuti “chipata chikuru chili,” ghakaŵamo mu mipukutu yakwamba. Ntheura mu Baibolo ili mazgu agha ghalembekamo. Muliso mavesi ghanyake agho ghanozgeka mwakuyana waka. Umo mwanozgeka ni muchoko waka, ndipo palije icho chasintha chakukhwaskana na uthenga wa Mazgu gha Chiuta.

Mupukutu wa 2 Ŵakorinte 4:13–5:4 wa mu 200 C.E.

^ ndime 5 Kwambira apa, Malemba Ghachihebere na Ghachiaramu, ghose ghakuchemeka Malemba Ghachihebere.

^ ndime 7 Ŵakakoperanga mipukutu chifukwa chakuti yikalembekanga pa vinthu vyambura kukhaliska.