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Xalamuka!  |  November 2012

Vativi Va Khale Va Michini

Vativi Va Khale Va Michini

MICHINI ya othomethiki yi sungule ku tirhisiwa etikhampaneni ta vumaki, ngopfu-ngopfu ku endla mintirho leyi endliwaka nkarhi ni nkarhi ni leyi phindha-phindhiwaka. Kambe michini yoleyo yi sungule rini ku tirhisiwa? Xana yi sungule ku tirhisiwa eka malembe-xidzana ma nga ri mangani lama hundzeke hi nkarhi wa ku sunguriwa ka tikhampani ta vumaki eYuropa? Swi nga ha ku hlamarisa ku tiva leswaku michini yoleyo yi sungule khale ku tirhisiwa.

Muchini wo pompa mati wa Al-Jazari lowu tirhisaka tipistoni timbirhi

Eku sunguleni ka nkarhi lowu a wu vuriwa nguva ya ntsako ya sayense ya Vuislam, leyi sunguleke hi lembe-xidzana ra vunhungu ku ya fika hi lembe-xidzana ra vu-13 ku ya emahlweni, swidyondzeki swa le Vuxa Xikarhi swi hundzuluxele tibuku ta sayense ni ta filosofi leti a ti vulavula hi swilo leswi endliweke hi Magriki lawa a ma dumile yo tanihi Archimendes, Aristotle, Ctesibius, Hero wa le Aleksandriya na Philo wa le Bizantiyamu ti va hi Xiarabu. * Leswi Mfumo wa Vuislam, lowu a wu sukela eSpain wu hundza hi le Afrika N’walungu ni le Vuxa Xikarhi wu ya fika eAfghanistan, se a wu ri ni tibuku leti ni tin’wana wu kote ku endla michini ya othomethiki.

Tsalwa ra voko ra Al-Jazari ra hi lembe-xidzana ra vu-13 leri kombisaka Wachi yakwe ya Ndlopfu

N’wamatimu wa swilo swa thekinoloji Donald Hill u vula leswaku michini yoleyo a yi kota “ku tirha nkarhi wo leha—tiawara to tala, masiku yo tala kumbe nkarhi wo leha swinene—handle ko lawuriwa hi vanhu.” Ha yini? Vanjhiniyara va endle mafambiselo man’wana lama endlaka leswaku michini yoleyo yi kota ku tirha handle ko lawuriwa hi munhu. Michini yoleyo a yi tirhisa mati lama humaka emathangini lama vekiweke ehenhla leswaku yi tshamela ku endla gezi. A yi kota ku pfula ni ku pfala vhelevhe hi ndlela ya othomethiki kumbe ku cinca ndlela leyi mati ma khulukaka ha yona. Nakambe a yi ri ni fambiselo ro titima ni ku tilayitha swin’we ni leswi Hill a swi vulaka “endlelo ra khale ro sivela ku onhaka ka muchini loko xilo xin’wana xa wona xo tshuka xi onhaka.” Xiya swikombiso swin’wana.

Tintlhari Ta Banu Musa

Tintlhari tinharhu ta Banu Musa, leswi hi Xiarabu swi vulaka leswaku “vana va majaha va Musa,” va hanye hi lembe-xidzana ra vukaye eBaghdad. Va dyondze swo tala eka swilo leswi endliweke hi Magriki lama hanyeke emahlweni ka vona yo tanihi Philo na Hero swin’we ni vanjhiniyara va Machayina, Maindiya ni Maperesiya leswaku va endla michini leyi tlulaka dzana. Mutsari wa tibuku ta sayense Ehsan Masood u vula leswaku michini yoleyo yi katsa leyi pompaka mati exidan’wanini yi ma yisa ehenhla ma tlhela ma halakela kwalaho ma ri karhi ma ya ematlhelo yo hambana-hambana, tiwachi leti endlaka swilo swo hlamarisa ni michini leyi chelelaka vanhu mati hi ndlela ya othomethiki yi tlhela yi tatisa mati lama yi ma tirhiseke hi ku tirhisa tibolo leti papamalaka ematini, tivhelevhe ni ku koka mati hi tiphayiphi. N’wamatimu wa timhaka ta sayense Jim Al-Khalili u vule leswaku vana va majaha va Musa va tlhele va endla tirhoboto to olova leti ringanaka ni vanhu—to endlela vanhu tiya ni to tlanga xitiringo, “leti kumbexana a ku ri michini yo sungula ya othomethiki.”

Michini yoleyo ya othomethiki yi yelana swinene ni ya manguva lawa. Hambiswiritano, mutsari wa tibuku ta sayense Ehsan Masood u ri: “A yi tirhisa ngopfu mati ematshan’weni ya fambiselo ra elektroniki, kambe matirhelo ya yona yo tala ma fana.”

 Al-Jazari—“Muendli Wa Tirhoboto”

Hi 1206, Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari u hete buku yakwe leyi minkarhi yin’wana yi hundzuluxeriwaka yi va Compendium on the Theory and Practice of the Mechanical Arts. A yi vitaniwa “dyondzo yo endla michini leyi hlelekeke.” Tin’wana ta tibuku ta thekinoloji ta al-Jazari ti hangalasiwe swinene ku tlula leti kandziyisiweke hi Banu Musa naswona tinhlamuselo ni mimpfampfarhuto yakwe swi tsariwe hi vuenti lerova vanjhiniyara va manguva lawa va nga swi kota ku endla michini yo fana ni yakwe hi vuntshwa.

Buku ya al-Jazari yi kombisa michini leyi tlakusaka mati, tiwachi leti tirhaka hi mati, tiwachi ta makhandlhela, michini leyi chelelaka vanhu mati, tirhoboto leti yimbelelaka swin’we ni pompo leyi hundzulaka matimba ya ku rhendzelekisiwa ka vhilwa lerikulu hi nkhuluko wa mati leswaku ma susumeta pistoni yi ya ehenhla ni le hansi leswaku yi pompa mati hi matimba lamakulu. Van’wamatimu va hluvulela al-Jazari xihuku hileswi a endleke michini yo pompa leyi tirhaka hi mati eka malembe-xidzana manharhu emahlweni ko va ku endliwa michini leyi fanaka ematikweni ya le Vupela-dyambu.

Al-Jazari u tlhele a endla tiwachi to hlamarisa kambe leti nga ta nkoka swinene. Leyi yi kombisiweke laha yi akiwe hi vuntshwa exitolo lexikulu xa Dubai. Fambiselo leri hlayelaka nkarhi i nkambana lowu boxeteriweke lowu vekiwaka ethangini ra mati endzeni ka khwiri ra ndlopfu. Nkambana wolowo wu tala hi mati hi timinete ta 30 kutani wu nyupela wu endla leswaku ku endleka swilo hi ku landzelelana hi ku tirhisa mapindza ni tibolo leti humaka eka xihondzo lexi nga enhlaneni wa ndlopfu. Loko ku hela hafu ya awara, nkambana wolowo wu tlhela wu papamala ehenhla ka mati ivi endlelo rero ri tlhela ri sungula. Wachi leyi swin’we ni michini yin’wana ya othomethiki leyi endliweke hi al-Jazari yi endle leswaku a nyikiwa xithopo lexi nge “muendli wa tirhoboto.”

Matimu lama vulavulaka hi vutlhari bya vanhu ma hlamarisa hakunene! Hambiswiritano, wolawo a ko va matimu lama tsakisaka ntsena. Ma tlhela ma hi pfuna ku va ni langutelo lerinene. Hi nkarhi lowu vanhu vo tala va tinyungubyisaka hi thekinoloji ya manguva lawa, hi tsundzuxiwa ku tlangela vanhu vo tlhariha lava hanyeke enkarhini lowu hundzeke.

^ ndzim. 3 Malunghana ni ntirho wo hundzuluxela lowu endliweke hi swidyondzeki swa Maarabu, hi kombela u hlaya xihloko lexi nge “Lexi Endleke Leswaku Xiarabu Xi Tirhisiwa Hi Vanhu Vo Dyondzeka,” eka magazini wa Xalamuka! wa February 2012.