SIKULINGULA masena umwi musongo wakagambwa kapati. Munkanda yaku Algeria, kwakali ŋanda yabana Roma iyakali kwiiminina luzundo lwabo yalo yakavwikkidwe amusenga. Ciindi ba James Bruce baku Scotland nobakaibona ŋanda eeyi mu 1765, tiibakazyiba kuti bakaimvwi amatongo aamunzi wabana Roma walo wakayakidwe mu Africa nkoili Kunyika, idolopo lyansiku lya Thamugadi, pele lino liitwa kuti Timgad.

Nikwakainda mwaanda wamyaka, mu 1881, basikuvwukkula zyakaindi baku France bakatalika kuvwukkula zintu zyakayobwedwe kabotu mumatongo aamunzi wa Timgad. Nokuba kuti ciindi nobakabubona busena oobu tiibwakali kuboneka kabotu, bantu ibakali kukkala mumo bakali bukkede. Pele ino ncinzi cakapa kuti bana Roma bayake munzi uusumpukide boobu mubusena buli boobu? Alimwi nciiyo nzi ncotukonzya kwiiya kuzwa kumunzi ooyu wansiku alimwi abantu bakali kukkala mumo?

MUNZI IWAKAYAKWA AKAAMBO KATWAAMBO TWACISI

Ciindi bana Roma nobakatalika kweendelezya zisi zili mu Africa nkoili Kunyika mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna B.C.E., bakatalika kukazyigwa abasimutuntuli bamwi. Mbuti bana Roma mbobakali kukonzya kubamba luumuno abantu mbobakajana mubusena oobu? Cakusaanguna, basikalumamba ibakazwa munkamu iitwa kuti, Third Augustan Legion bakayaka minzi minji iikwabilidwe amabaya alimwi amasena aabasikugatela mumalundu alo mazuba aano aali kunyika kwacisi ca Algeria. Kumane, bakazooyaka dolopo lya Timgad, pele lino kabajisi makanze aaindene.

Mubwini, bana Roma bakayaka dolopo lya Timgad kuti kalikkalwa abasikalumamba ibakacileka mulimo, pele dolopo eeli bakaliyaka kabajisi makanze aakoongelezya bantu mbobakajana mubusena oobu. Makanze aabo akazwidilila. Mukuya kwaciindi, buumi bubotu bwamudolopo lya Timgad, bwakatalika kubakkomanisya bantu bakubusena oobu balo ibakatalika kucita makwebo mudolopo eeli. Kabalombozya kukkala mudolopo lya Timgad imwakali kukkala buyo bana Roma balikke, bantu banji bakubusena oobu bakazumina kunjila mulimo wabusikalumamba munkamu yabana Roma kwamyaka iili 25 kutegwa balo amikwasyi yabo beelele kuba basicisi bana Roma.

Akaambo kakutakkutila kuba buyo basicisi bana Roma, bana Africa bamwi bakaba azyuuno zyaatala mudolopo lya Timgad alimwi amadolopo amwi aakali kweendelezyegwa abana Roma. Makanze aabucenjezu aabana Roma aakoongelezya bantu bakubusena oobu akazwidilila cakuti nokwakainda buyo cisela camwaanda wamyaka kuzwa nolyakayakwa dolopo lya Timgad, bantu banji ibakali kukkala mumo bakali bana Africa.

BANA ROMA MBOBAKOONGELEZYA BANTU

Misyika iyakajisi minsende alimwi amasena aazyuuno

Mbuti bana Roma mbobakazwidilila koongelezya bantu bakubusena oobu cakufwambaana? Kaambo kamwi nkakuti, bakali kukulwaizya muzeezo wakuti basicisi  beelede kweelana, eeyi ninjiisyo yakali kuyiisyigwa asitwaambo twacisi muna Roma wazina lya Cicero. Nyika yakaapaulwa bweelene akati kabasikalumba bakaleka milimo bana Roma alimwi abana Africa. Idolopo eeli lyakayakidwe kabotu amaanda aazitina, ŋanda imwi aimwi kaiyakidwe abusena bukkwana mamita aali 20 mumabazu oonse alimwi kwakali tuzila tusyoonto twakali kwaandaanya maanda. Kuyaka maanda munzila iili boobo kwakali kubakkomanisya kapati bantu ibakali kukkala mumo.

Mbubwenya mbocakabede mumadolopo manji aabana Roma, bantu bakali kuswaangana mumabbuwa aakumusyika ikwakali bantu banji kutegwa bamvwe twaambo tupya alimwi akusobana zisobano. Bantu ibakali kukkala mucimpayuma munsi-munsi amalundu, cakutadooneka bakali kweezyeezya mbocakali kukkomanisya kweendeenda mutuzila twakajisi ziluli ciindi nokupya kapati naa kulikkomanisya mumasena aabuleya aakusambila ooko ikwakali kuvwuuma meenda. Ambweni bakali kweezeezya kuti balikkede mumabali-bali aameenda apooma kumwi kabaizya abeenzinyina. Kweelede kuti kulimbabo zintu zili boobu zyakali mbuli ziloto buyo.

Cibumbwa cijisi baleza botatwe atala ciimikidwe acuumbwe

Mabbuwa aakusobanina aalo akali kubelesyegwa koongelezya bantu. Eeli bbuwa lyakali kukkwana bantu basika ku 3,500, kubikkilizya abantu banji bazwa mudolopo lya Timgad alimwi amadolopo aakabazingulukide. Kabatanatalika kusobana, basizisobano bakali kubatondezya basikweebelela izilengwa zyabana Roma zyalo kanji-kanji izyakali kubikkilizya micito yakoonana naa nkondo.

Bukombi bwabana Roma abwalo bwakalijisi lubazu lupati. Ansi alimwi akubwaanda bwamasena aakusambila kwakazekawidwe zintu zyeebeka izyakali kucitika lyansiku. Mbokunga kusamba cakali cilengwa ciyandika icakali kucitwa abuzuba, aasyoonto-syoonto bantu bakooko bakabuzyibila bukombi bwabana Roma alimwi abaleza babo. Makanze aabo aakucinca bana Africa kutalika zilengwa zyabana Roma akazwidilila kapati cakuti zibumbwa izyakali kubikkwa azyuumbwe zyakalijisi madeekko aabaleza botatwe babantu bakubusena oobu alimwi zyakalijisi abaleza babana Roma.

DOLOPO LYEEBEKA LYALOBA CAKUTAYEEYELA

Kuzwa ciindi Mwami Trajan waku Roma naakatalisya dolopo eeli mu 100 C.E., bana Roma bakali kukulwaizya bantu bamu Africa nkoili Kunyika kulima maila, kupanga mafwuta aamaolifa alimwi awaini. Kakutanainda ciindi, mucooko eeci mumwakali kuzwa maila, mafwuta aamaolifa alimwi awaini. Zintu eezyi zyakali kuyandika mubulelo boonse bwabana Roma. Mbubwenya mbuli madolopo amwi, idolopo lya Timgad lyakazwidilila mubulelo bwabana Roma. Mukuya kwaciindi, bantu bakavwula kapati mu Timgad, alimwi idolopo lyakakomena akwiindilila mabaya aakali kukwabilila dolopo.

Bantu ibakali kukkala mudolopo alimwi abamukamwini busena, bakazwidilila kapati akaambo kakucita makwebo abana Roma, pele balimi bakubusena oobo tiibakagwasyigwa kapati pe. Mumwaanda wamyaka watatu C.E., kweendelezyegwa calunya alimwi akuyaatala kwamitelo kwakapa kuti balimi basyoonto-syoonto bazange. Bamwi akati kabo ibakali kunjila cikombelo ca Katolika, bakatalika kunjila cikombelo ciitwa kuti Donatists, ikabunga kabantu ibakali kulyaamba kuba Banakristo bakalisungula kumana makulo mu Cikombelo ca Katolika.—Amubone kabbokesi kakuti, “ Bana Donatists—‘Cikombelo Cakubeja.’

Nokwakainda myaanda yamyaka kakuli manyongwe akati kazikombelo, nkondo zyamasi alimwi akulwanwa abantu bazwa kuzisi zimbi, bulelo bwabana Roma bwakabula nguzu zyakweendelezya zisi zyaku Africa  nkoili Kunyika. Kuzoosika mumwaanda wamyaka wacisambomwe C.E., bana Arab bakubusena oobu bakalyuumpa dolopo lya Timgad, mukuya kwaciindi lyakalubwa cakumaninina kwamyaka iili 1,000.

“OOBU MBOBUUMI!”

Malembe aaci Latin aakalembedwe kuti: “Kuvwima, kusamba, kusobana, kuseka—oobu mbobuumi!”

Basikuvwukkula zyakaindi ibakajana busena aawo mpolyakabed dolopo lya Timgad, bakaseka nobakabona malembe aaci Latin ngobakajana. Malembe aaya akali kwaamba kuti: “Kuvwima, kusamba, kusobana, kuseka—oobu mbobuumi!” Kujatikizya malembe aaya, syaazibwene mumakani aakaindi uumwi waku France wakaamba kuti eeci “citondezya buumi ambweni butakwe makanze, pele bamwi mbobabona kuti mbobuumi bwini-bwini.”

Masimpe ngakuti, bana Roma bakali kupona buumi buli boobu kwaciindi cili mbocibede. Paulo, imwaapostolo Munakristo wamumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna, wakaamba kujatikizya buumi mbobakali kupona bwakuti “atulye akunywa, nkaambo kayi juunza tuyoofwa.” Nokuba kuti bakali kukomba, bana Roma bakali kuyandisya kulikkomanisya, tiibakali kubikkila maano kuzyiba cini ncobakali kuponena. Paulo wakacenjezya Banakristonyina kuti beelede kubacenjelela bantu bali boobu ciindi naakaamba kuti: “Muteenwi pe. Kuyanzana kubyaabi kunyonganya zilengwa zibotu.”—1 Bakolinto 15:32, 33.

Nokuba kuti bantu bamudolopo lya Timgad bakapona myaka iili 1,500 yainda, bantu tabanacinca kujatikizya mbobabubona buumi. Bantu banji mazuba aano babikkila buyo maano kubuumi bwacecino ciindi. Kulimbabo, kupona mbuli mbobakali kupona bana Roma cilagwasya nokuba kuti eeco cilakonzya kubaletela mapenzi. Pele Bbaibbele lilatwaambila caantangalala makani aagwasya noliti: “Zintu zicitika munyika eeyi ziyaabucinca.” Aboobo litukulwaizya ‘kutaibelesya cakumaninina nyika.’—1 Bakolinto 7:31.

Matongo aadolopo lya Timgad apa bumboni kukaambo kakuti kujana lukkomano lwini-lwini mubuumi takuyeeme aakupona kweelana amalembe aalya aakavwikkilwa mumusenga wamu Africa nkoili Kunyika. Muciindi caboobo, kuyeeme aakupona kweelana aciyeekezyo camu Bbaibbele cakuti: “Inyika ilamana antoomwe azisusi zyanjiyo, pele ooyo uucita kuyanda kwa Leza unooliko lyoonse mane kukabe kutamani.”—1 Johane 2:17.