“Mweendelezi wacooko . . . wakaba musyomi, nkaambo zyakamugambya kapati njiisyo zya Jehova.”—MIL. 13:12.

1-3. Mbuyumuyumu nzi basikwiiya ba Jesu mbobakajisi kujatikizya kukambauka makani mabotu “kumasi oonse”?

JESU KRISTO wakapa basikumutobela mulimo mupati. Wakabalailila kuti: “Kamuya mukayiisye bantu bazisi zyoonse kuti babe basikwiiya.” Mbobakali kuyaabuzumanana kucita mulimo ooyo, mukuya kwaciindi ‘makani mabotu akali kuyookambaukwa munyika yoonse kuti bukabe bumboni kumasi oonse.’—Mt. 24:14; 28:19.

2 Basikwiiya aabo bakali kumuyanda Jesu alimwi amakani mabotu. Pele beelede kuti bakali kulibuzya mbobakali kuyoocikonzya kuubeleka mulimo wabo. Kayi bakali buyo basyoonto. Jesu ooyo ngobakali kwaambilizya kuti Mwana wa Leza, wakajaigwa. Basikwiiya bakwe bakali kubonwa kuti “tiibakayiide alimwi bakali bantu-bantu buyo.” (Mil. 4:13) Pele bakeelede kwaambilizya mulumbe iwatakali kweendelana anjiisyo zyabasololi bazikombelo ibakali ampuwo aabo ibakayiisyidwe tunsiyansiya twansiku. Muzilawo mobakakomenena, basikwiiya aabo tiibakali kulemekwa. Alimwi buya kuti mweezyanisya a Bulelo Bwabana Roma ibwakasumpukide kapati, cisi cabana Israyeli tiicakali kubalwa kuti ncisi.

 3 Kuyungizya waawo, Jesu wakacenjezyede basikwiiya bakwe kuti bakali kuyoosulwa akupenzyegwa alimwi akuti bamwi babo bakali kuyoojaigwa. (Lk. 21:16, 17) Bakali kuyakupenga akaambo kakwaabwa, basinsimi babeji, alimwi akuvwula kwabubi. (Mt. 24:10-12) Nokuba kuti mulumbe wabo wakali kuyootambulwa kabotu koonse-koonse, mbuti mbobakali kukonzya kuukambauka “kusikila kumamanino aanyika”? (Mil. 1:8) Buyumu-yumu oobo bweelede kuti bwakali kubapa kulibilika kapati.

4. Mbuti mbobakazwidilila mumulimo wabo wakukambauka basikwiiya bamumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna?

4 Tacikwe makani akulibilika kuli koonse nkobakajisi, basikwiiya bakajata bubi kukambauka makani mabotu ikutali buyo mu Jerusalemu amu Samariya, pele akumasena oonse kwakali bantu munyika aciindi eeco. Nokuba kuti basikwiiya bakajana buyumuyumu, mumyaka iili 30 makani mabotu akali ‘kukambaukwa kuzilenge zyoonse zili ansi aajulu’ alimwi akali ‘kuzyala micelo akuvwula munyika yoonse.’ (Kol. 1:6, 23) Mucikozyanyo: Akaambo kamajwi ngaakaamba mwaapostolo Paulo alimwi ancaakacita kunsumbu ya Kupro, mweendelezi muna Roma Sergio Paulu “wakaba musyomi nkaambo zyakamugambya kapati njiisyo zya Jehova.”—Amubale Milimo 13:6-12.

5. (a) Ncisyomezyo nzi Jesu ncaakapa basikwiiya bakwe? (b) Kwiinda mukulanga-langa bukkale bwamumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna, ncinzi bamwi ncobakaamba?

5 Basikwiiya ba Jesu bakalizyi kuti tiibakali kukonzya kuubeleka mulimo wakukambauka munguzu zyabo beni. Jesu wakabaambila kuti wakali kuyakuba ambabo alimwi akuti muuya uusalala wakali kuyoobagwasya. (Mt. 28:20) Mumbazu zimwi, ibukkale bwakaliko munyika aciindi eeco bulakonzya bwakali bubotu kumulimo wakukambauka Bwami. Ibbuku litegwa Evangelism in the Early Church lyaamba kuti: “Ambweni kunyina ciindi icakali cibotu kaindi munyika icakali kweelela kapati kutambula Cikombelo icakazwide akubambwa kwiinda ciindi camumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna AD . . . Kuzikusika mumwaanda wabili, Banakristo . . . bakatalika kwaamba kuti bwakali busongo bwa Leza ibwakabamba zintu munyika kutegwa Bunakristo butalisyigwe.”

6. Ino ncinzi ncotutiilange-lange (a) mucibalo eeci? (b) mucibalo citobela?

6 Ibbaibbele talyaambi bwini Leza mbwaakeendelezya zintu mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna kutegwa cikonzyeke kuubeleka kapati mulimo wakukambauka. Pele ncotuli masimpe ncakuti: Jehova wakali kuyanda kuti makani mabotu akambaukwe, kakuli walo Saatani tanaakali kuyanda. Mucibalo eeci, tulabandika zintu zimwi zyalo zikonzya kuti nzizyakapa kuti cuube-ube kuubeleka mulimo wakukambauka mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna kwiinda muziindi zimwi zyansiku. Mucibalo citobela, tuyoolanga-langa zintu izitugwasya mazuba aano kwaambilizya makani mabotu kusikila kumamanino aanyika.

LUUMUNO LWABANA ROMA MBOLWAKAGWASYA

7. Mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna, ino bukkale bwakali buti mu Bulelo Bwabana Roma? Ncinzi icakapa kuti ciindi eeco ciindane aciindi cimbi cili coonse?

7 Mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna, kwakali luumuno mubweendelezi bwabana Roma. Eeci cakapa kuti cibaubile kukambauka basikwiiya. Bulelo Bwana Roma bwakabikkide milawo iyakapa kuti bantu baliibe ansi aabweendelezi oobu. Zimwi ziindi, kwakali kuba ‘nkondo mumasena aakali aafwaafwi alimwi amasena aakali kule,’ mbubonya mbwaakasinsima Jesu. (Mt. 24:6) Basikalumamba bana Roma bakanyonyoona Jerusalemu mu 70 C.E., alimwi kwakali nkondo muminyinza yabulelo oobo. Nokuba boobo, kwakali luumuno mumasena manji aakazingulukide Lwizi lwa Mediterranean aakali ansi aabweendelezi bwa Roma. Luumuno oolu lwakatola myaka iibalilwa ku 200 alimwi  lwakazikwiitwa kuti Luumuno Lwabana Roma. Ibbuku limwi ligwasya kuvwuntauzya lyaamba kuti: “Kunyina ciindi mumakani aakaindi nikwakali ciindi cilamfwu caluumuno, alimwi kunyina nokuya kuba luumuno iluzumanana kwaciindi cili mbocibede akati kabantu.”

8. Mbuti luumuno ilwakaliko mbolwakabagwasya Banakristo bakusaanguna?

8 Ikwaamba mbwaakali kuzibona zintu, syaazibwene mumakani aabukombi wamumwaanda wamyaka watatu wazina lya Origen wakalemba kuti: “Mulimo wa Jesu wakuyiisya niwatakazwidilila kumwaigwa munyika yoonse ikuti nikwakali mami manji. . . akaambo kakuti bantu koonse-koonse nibakasinikizyigwa kutola lubazu mumulimo wabusikalumamba alimwi akulwanina kukwabilila zisi zyabo. . . . Mbubonya buyo, ccita kuti bukkale mumasi oonse nobwakacincwa eelyo kwaba muuya uuli kabotu aciindi cakuboola kwa Jesu, mbuti kuyiisya ooku, ikujatikizya luumuno alimwi kutazumizyi bantu kupilusya cibi kuli basinkondonyina, mbokwakali kunga kwazwidilila?” Bakambausi ba Bwami bakapenzyegwa mumasena aakali kweendelezyegwa abana Roma, pele bakali basiluumuno alimwi kulibonya kuti bakagwasyigwa aluumuno ilwakaliko aciindi eeco.—Amubale Baroma 12:18-21.

MIGWAGWA MIBOTU MBOYAKAGWASYA

9, 10. Nkaambo nzi ncocakali cuuba-uba kuli basikwiiya kweenda mumasena oonse aakali ansi aa Bulelo Bwabana Roma?

9 Banakristo bakaibelesya kabotu migwagwa yabana Roma. Kutegwa kababakwabilila alimwi akubeendelezya bantu babo, bana Roma bakajisi basikalumamba basinguzu alimwi ibacibwene. Kutegwa basikalumamba kabeenda cakufwambaana, migwagwa mibotu yakali kuyandika, eelyo bana Roma bakalicibwene kwiipanga. Bana Roma basyaazibwene mumilimo yakupanga-panga bakapanga migwagwa iinda kumakkilomita aali 80,000 iyakali kuswaanganya zibeela zyoonse zyamucooko. Migwagwa yakali kwiinda muzisaka, mucimpayuma alimwi amumalundu.

10 Kunze lyamigwagwa yabo, bana Roma bakali kukonzya kubelesya milonga alimwi azizyiba zipati alimwi zilamfwu imato mwaakali kukonzya kweenda. Mato aabana Roma akali kubelesya nzila zyamulwizi zisika ku 900 eezyo izyakali kuswaanganya myaanda yazito. Aboobo Banakristo bakali kukonzya kweenda mumasena oonse aakali kweendelezyegwa abana Roma. Kwakali buyumuyumu, pele mwaapostolo Paulo alimwi abamwi bakali kukonzya kweenda mucilawo coonse kakunyina mapepa aazumizya muntu kunjila mucisi. Kwakanyina masena mpobalanga-langa mapepa aabasikunjila mucisi. Basikutyola milawo bakali kuyoowa kusubulwa abana Roma, aboobo tiicakali kuyoosya kweenda mumigwagwa. Mbubwenya buyo, kweenda kubelesya lwizi tiicakali kuyoosya akaambo kakuti mato aankondo aabana Roma akali kukwabilila kuzigwebenga. Nokuba kuti kwaziindi zinji bwato mwaakatantide Paulo bwakanyonyooka alimwi kwakali ntenda zyamulwizi, Magwalo taambi cacigaminina kuti munyendo zyakwe zyamulwizi wakapenzyegwa azigwebenga.—2Kor. 11:25, 26.

MWAAMBO MBOWAKAGWASYA

Ikubelesya mabbuku aa codex kwakapa kuti cuube-ube kujana lugwalo (Amubone muncali 12)

11. Nkaambo nzi basikwiiya ncobakali kuubelesya mwaambo wa Chigiriki?

11 Mwaambo wa Chigiriki uutegwa Koine iwakazyibidwe abantu banji wakagwasya ikutegwa kube kubandika kabotu alimwi akusumpula lukamantano akati kambungano zya Banakristo. Akaambo kakuzunda nkwaakazunda Alekizanda Mupati, Chigiriki ngomwaambo ngobakali kubandika akumvwa bantu banji. Aboobo, babelesi ba Leza bakali kukonzya kubandika abantu boonse baindene-indene, eeci cakapa kuti makani mabotu amwaigwe. Kuyungizya waawo, ba Juda ibakali kukkala mu Egepita bakasandulula Magwalo aa  Chihebrayo mu Chigiriki. Bantu bakalilizyi bbuku eeli lya Septuagint, alimwi basikutobela Kristo bakusaanguna bakali kuzubulula twaambo cakwaanguluka kuzwa mulindilyo. Alimwi Banakristo bakajana kuti cakali cuuba-uba kubelesya Chigiriki mumagwalo ngobakali kulemba. Chigiriki cakajisi mabala manji alimwi aakali kugwasya kwayandika kupandulula twaambo twakumuuya.

12. (a) Ino mabbuku aa codex akabambidwe buti, alimwi akajisi bubotu nzi kwiindana amabbuku aakuvwunga? (b) Ndilili mabbuku aa codex naakatalika kubelesyegwa kapati a Banakristo?

12 Mbuti Banakristo mbobakali kukonzya kwaabelesya Magwalo mumulimo wabo wamumuunda? Mabbuku aakuvwunga akali kukatazya kapati, nkaambo akeelede kuvwungwa akuvwungululwa alimwi akalembedwe buyo kulubazu lomwe. Bbuku lyomwe buyo lya Makani Mabotu aa Matayo lyakali kukonzya kuzuzya bbuku lyoonse lyakuvwunga. Mpoonya bakatalika kupanga ma codex—mabbuku aakusaanguna aakapangidwe mbuli mabbuku aamazuba aano. Aaya mabbuku akajisi mapeeji aaswaanganizyidwe antoomwe. Sikubala wakali kukonzya kujalula bbuku eeli akucijana cakufwambaana cibalo camu Magwalo. Nokuba kuti takuzyibidwe Banakristo nobakatalika kubelesya mabbuku aa codex, bbuku limwi ligwasya kuvwuntauzya lyaamba kuti: “Banakristo bakali kwaabelesya kapati mabbuku aa codex mumwaanda wamyaka wabili cakuti kulangilwa kuti kubelesyegwa kwangawo kwakatalika kautanasika mwaka wa 100 A.D.”

MULAWO WABANA ROMA MBOWAKAGWASYA

13, 14. (a) Mbuti Paulo mbwaakacibelesya coolwe cakwe cakuba sicisi muna Roma? (b) Ino mulawo wabana Roma wakabagwasya buti Banakristo?

13 Mulawo wabana Roma wakali kutobelwa mubulelo boonse, alimwi sicisi muna Roma wakajisi nguzu zimwi alimwi alukwabililo. Paulo wakacibelesya coolwe cakuba sicisi muna Roma ziindi zinji. Ciindi nobakayanda kumukwibbaula mu Jerusalemu, imwaapostolo ooyu wakabuzya mweendelezi muna Roma kuti: “Sena cilizumizyidwe kuti nywebo nobaalumi mukwibbaule muna Roma alimwi uutanapegwa mulandu?” Tiicakazumizyidwe pe. Ciindi Paulo naakaamba kuti wakali sicisi muna Roma kwiinda mukuzyalwa, ‘baalumi ibakali kuyanda kumusubula ikutegwa aambe bakamusosoloka; awalo mweendelezi wabasikalumamba wakayoowa naakazyiba kuti Paulo wakali muna Roma akuti wakamwaangide nketani.’—Mil. 22:25-29.

14 Busicisi bwa Paulo kweelana amulawo wabana Roma bwakapa kuti aangununwe muntolongo ciindi naakali ku Filipi. (Mil. 16:35-40) Ku Efeso, mupati wamunzi wakazubulula mulawo  wabana Roma naakamana kuumuzya nkamu yabantu iyakanyemede kapati. (Mil. 19:35-41) Kucita apilu mulandu nkwaakacita Paulo naakali ku Kaisareya kwakajalula nzila kulinguwe kutegwa aiminine lusyomo lwakwe kuli Kaisara. (Mil. 25:8-12) Aboobo, mulawo wabana Roma wakapa kuti cikonzyeke ‘kukwabilila akusitikizya makani mabotu mumulawo.’—Flp. 1:7.

KUMWAIKIZYANYA KWABA JUDA MBOKWAKAGWASYA

15. Ino ba Juda bakamwaikizyenye buti mumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna?

15 Mumbazu zimwi, Banakristo bakajana kuti mulimo wabo wabukambausi wakali muuba-uba akaambo kaba Juda ibakamwaikide mumasena oonse aakali kweendelezyegwa abana Roma. Myaanda yamyaka musyule, bana Asuri mpoonya abana Babuloni bakatolede ba Juda mubuzike kuzwa kucisi cokwabo. Kutalikila buyo mumwaanda wamyaka wasanu B.C.E., kwakali ba Juda muzyooko zili 127 mu Bulelo bwa Persia. (Es. 9:30) Ciindi Jesu naakali anyika, kwakali ba Juda mu Egypt amumasena amwi aaku North Africa, aku Greece, Asia Minor, alimwi aku Mesopotamia. Kweezyezyegwa kuti akati kabantu bali 60 miliyoni mu Bulelo Bwabana Roma, muntu omwe akati kabantu bali 14 wakali mu Juda. Kufwumbwa ba Juda nkobakali kuunka, bakali kutolelezya abukombi bwabo.—Mt. 23:15.

16, 17. (a) Muunzila nzi kumwaikizyanya kwaba Juda mbokwakagwasya banji ibatakali ba Juda? (b) Mbubambe nzi mbobakajisi ba Juda mbobakatobela basikwiiya?

16 Akaambo kakuti ba Juda bakalimwaikizyenye kapati, banji ibatakali ba Juda bakaazyiba Magwalo aa Chihebrayo. Bakaiya kuti kuli buyo Leza omwe wakasimpe akuti aabo ibamukomba beelede kutobela zyeelelo zisumpukide zyabukkale akulilemeka. Kuyungizya waawo, Magwalo aa Chihebrayo akazwide businsimi bujatikizya Mesiya. (Lk. 24:44) Ba Juda alimwi a Banakristo bakalizyi kuti Magwalo aa Chihebrayo ndi Jwi lya Leza lyakasololelwa amuuya, ikaambo kakapa kuti cikonzyeke kuli Paulo kujana kaambo nkobakali kuzuminana abaabo ibakali amyoyo iiyandisya bululami. Mbubonya buyo, mwaapostolo wakajisi cilengwa cakunjila muzikombelo zyaba Juda akusalazyanya ambabo mu Magwalo.—Amubale Milimo 17:1, 2.

17 Ba Juda bakajisi bubambe bubikkidwe bwakukomba. Bakali kuswaangana lyoonse muzikombelo naa antangalala. Bakali kwiimba nyimbo, kupaila alimwi akwaabandika Magwalo. Bubambe bukozyenye bulatobelwa mumbungano zya Bunakristo mazuba aano.

ZYOONSE ZILAKONZYEKA KULI JEHOVA

18, 19. (a) Ino ibukkale bwamumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna bwakapa kuti cikonzyeke kucita nzi? (b) Ino makani aabandikwa mucibalo eeci amupa kulimvwa buti kujatikizya Jehova?

18 Aboobo, zintu ziindene-indene zilibedelede zyakagwasya kutegwa makani mabotu akambaukwe cakuzwidilila. Luumuno Lwabana Roma, migwagwa mibotu, mwaambo wakadumide, mulawo wabana Roma, alimwi akumwaikizyanya kwaba Juda kwakagwasya basikwiiya ba Jesu kuti baubeleke mulimo wabo wakukambauka ngobakapedwe a Leza.

19 Myaanda yone musyule, muntu umwi mubbuku lyasyaabusongo muna Giriki Plato wakaamba kuti: “Cilakonzya kuyuma kapati kujana sikupanga alimwi usyi wabubombo bwesu oobu, alimwi nokuba kuti twamujana, tacikonzyeki kumwaamba kumuntu uuli woonse.” Nokuba boobo, Jesu wakati: “Izintu zitakonzyeki kubantu zilakonzyeka kuli Leza.” (Lk. 18:27) Mulengi wabubumbo uyanda kuti bantu bamujane alimwi akumuzyiba. Kuyungizya waawo, Jesu wakaambila basikumutobela bakwe kuti: “Kamuya mukayiisye bantu bazisi zyoonse kuti babe basikwiiya.” (Mt. 28:19) Kwiinda mukugwasyigwa a Jehova Leza, kuzuzikizya mulimo ooyu kulakonzyeka. Cibalo citobela ciyootondezya mulimo ooyo mbouli mukubelekwa mazuba aano.