Sena masimpe kuti kaindi muntu umwi wakali kukonzya kusyanga nsaku mumuunda wamuntu umwi?

Bbuku lyakuti Digest lyamu 1468 ilyakalembwa aa Mweendelezi wazina lyakuti Justinian njimwi yamabbuku manji aamba makani kujatikizya milawo yamunkuta yamumazuba aansiku

MU LUGWALO lwa Matayo 13:24-26, Jesu wakati: “Bwami bwakujulu bulakonzya kukozyanisyigwa amuntu iwakasyanga mbuto mbotu mumuunda wakwe. Bantu nobakali koona, sinkondonyina wakaboola akusyanga nsaku muwiiti, amane waunka. Lino busonga nibwakasonsa akuzyala maila, azyalo nsaku zyakalibonya.” Balembi baindene-indene balazumbauzya ikuti naa cikozyanyo eeci ceelede kubonwa kuti ncancobeni, nokuba boobo mabbuku aamilawo aabana Roma atondezya kuti makani aaya ayelede kubonwa kuti ngamasimpe.

Bbuku limwi ilipandulula mabala aamu Bbaibbele lyaamba kuti, “kusyanga nsaku iitegwa darnel mumuunda wamuntu umwi kutegwa mujole cibi . . . wakali mulandu kweelana amulawo wabana Roma. Kutegwa kube mulawo kujatikizya makani aaya ncitondezyo cakuti milandu iili boobu yakali kuvwula kucitika.” Sikwiiya makani aajatikizya mulawo wamunkuta wazina lyakuti Alastair Kerr upandulula kuti mu 533 C.E., Mweendelezi muna Roma wazina lyakuti Justinian wakamwaya bbuku lyakuti Digest, nkokuti mulongo wamilawo yabana Roma alimwi atwaambo tuzubulidwe kuzwa kuli basyaabusongo mumakani aamulawo aakuciindi eeco (kuma 100-250 C.E.). Kweelana abbuku eeli (Digest, 9.2.27.14), syaabusongo umwi mumakani aamulawo wazina lyakuti Ulpian wakaamba kujatikizya mulandu wakabetekwa amweendelezi wamumwaanda wamyaka wabili muna Roma wazina lyakuti Celsus. Nsaku zyakali kusyangwa mumuunda wamuntu umwi, alimwi cakali kucitika ncakuti zisyango zyakali kunyonyooka. Bbuku lyakuti Digest lilaamba kujatikizya ncaakeelede kucita mukamwini muunda naa mulimi kweelana amulawo, kutegwa muntu wamulubizyila amubbadele akaambo kakumunyonyweeda zisyango zyakwe.

Ikuti milimo mibyaabi iili boobu yakali kucitika kaindi mubulelo bwabana Roma ncitondezyo cakuti bukkale Jesu mbwaakaamba bwakali kucitika ncobeni.

Ino bana Roma bakabapa lwaanguluko lunji buti basololi bana Juda bamumwaanda wamyaka wakusaanguna mu Judaya?

KUCIINDI eeci, Judaya yakali kweendelezyegwa abana Roma, aabo ibakali kwiimininwa amweendelezi iwakajisi basikalumamba aabo mbaakali kweendelezya. Mulimo wakwe mupati wakali wakubweza mutelo wabana Roma, kubamba luumuno alimwi akubona kuti zintu zyeenda kabotu. Bana Roma bakalibikkilide maano kapati kumanizya milimo iitali yamumulawo alimwi akusubula aabo ibakali kuleta manyongwe. Ikuti kakutali boobo, bunji bwaziindi bana Roma bakali kucibona buyo kabotu kusiya bweendelezi bwazyooko mumaanza abeendelezi bakubusena ooko.

Lubeta mu Nkuta Mpati Yaba Juda

Nkuta Mpati Yaba Juda njiyakali kweendelezya twaambo tujatikizya mulawo waba Juda. Nkuta zisyoonto-syoonto zyakaliko mu Judaya moonse. Bunji bwamilandu misyoonto alimwi amipati ambweni yakali kubetekwa ankuta eezyi ikutali abeendelezi bana Roma. Cintu comwe buyo nkuta zyaba Juda ncozyatakeelede kucita, kwakali kujaya zigwebenga—balikke bana Roma mbobakajisi nguzu zyakucita boobo. Bukkale bulikke ibuzyibidwe kapati eelyo zintu nozyakacitwa bwiindene, ndileelyo bantu bazulilwa mu Nkuta Mpati Yaba Juda nobakamubeteka Stefano alimwi akupa kuti apwaigwe mabwe mane lufwu.—Mil. 6:8-15; 7:54-60.

Nkuta Mpati Yaba Juda nkokuti yakajisi nguzu zinji zyakweendelezya. Nokuba boobo, sikuvwuntauzya umwi wazyina lyakuti Emil Schürer wakaamba kuti, “nkuta eeyi tiiyakapedwe nguzu zyoonse akaambo kakuti beendelezi bana Roma lwabo kubagama bakali kukonzya kubweza ntamu kufwumbwa ciindi akubeteka makani, mbuli mbobakali kucita ciindi nobabona kuti umwi wazangila bweendelezi bwabo.” Cikozyanyo cimwi caceeci cakacitika ciindi mweendelezi wabasikalumamba Kilaudiyo Lusiya naakaanga mwaapostolo Paulo, walo iwakali muna Roma.—Mil. 23:26-30.