MAPAIPI aameenda aaku Rome ali akati kamilimo yakaindi yabasyaazibwene iinda kugambya. Mweendelezi muna Roma alimwi uulanganya makani aameenda Sextus Julius Frontinus (35–c. 103 C.E.) wakalemba kuti: “Ikuti kamucikonzya, amweezyanisye zyuumbwe naa mayake aatakwe mulimo pele aadumide aabana Greece kumayake aaya aayandika aakali kuleta meenda manji!” *

Nkaambo Nzi Mapaipi Aameenda Ncaakali Kuyandika?

Madolopo aakaindi akali kuyakwa afwaafwi ampobakali kukonzya kujana meenda manji, dolopo lya Rome alyalo mbolyakayakidwe oobo. Kumatalikilo, Mulonga wa Tiber atusensa twameenda alimwi amigoti iyakali afwaafwi yakali kucikonzya kupa meenda aakali kuyandika. Pele kutalikila mumwaanda wamyaka wane B.C.E., dolopo lya Rome lyakakomena cakufwambaana, aalo meenda akali kuyandika kapati.

Mbwaanga mbasyoonto ibakajisi mapaipi aameenda mumaanda aabo, bana Roma bakayaka masena manji aakusambila aabuleya alimwi aatali aabuleya. Meenda aakali kubelesyegwa kubusena bwakusaanguna ibwakusambila banamaleya mudolopo lya Rome, akali kuletwa amupaipi wiitwa kuti Aqua Virgo, busena oobu bwakaabwa mu 19 B.C.E. Iwakayaka mupaipi ooyu, Marcus Agrippa, mweenzinyina a Caesar Augustus, wakabelesya mali aakwe manji kubambulula alimwi akubikka mapaipi aameenda mapati mu Rome.

Masena aakusambila alimwi akazooba masena aakulyookezyela, masena mapati akali kuba amasena mbuli mapaaki alimwi amalaibbulali. Mbwaanga meenda aainda mumapaipi tanaakali kukonzya kujalwa, azwa mumasena aakusambila, akali kubwezelezya adooti muzimbuzi izyakali mumasena aakusambila kutola kumadamu aamadooti.

Kuyaka Alimwi Akubambulula

Ciindi nomwamvwa mabala aakuti “mupaipi wabana Roma,” sena muyeeya misemu milamfwu iyakali kunyamuna mapaipi aakali kutola meenda mumasena aakule? Masimpe ngakuti, cibeela citasiki ku 20 pesenti camapaipi ncocakali kupangwa amisemu, alimwi cibeela cipati cakali kunsi, munyika. Nzila eeyi yakuyaka iitaduli  kapati yakali kukwabilila mapaipi alimwi tiiyakali kunyonganya nyika alimwi amasena mobakali kukkala bantu. Mucikozyanyo, mupaipi wa Aqua Marcia, iwakamanizyigwa kuyakwa mu 140 B.C.E., wakali kulampa makkilomita aatandila ku 92, pele misemu yakali kusika buyo kumakkilomita aali 11.

Kabatanatalika kupanga mupaipi, basyaazibwene bakali kulanga-langa aazwa meenda, akubona naa meenda mabotu alimwi ambwaakali kukunka. Alimwi bakali kulanga buumi bwabantu banywa meenda kubusena oobo. Ikuti naa busena bwazumizyigwa, basyaazibwene bakali kubona nzila mbotu mupaipi mpowakali kukonzya kwiinda, nsaizi alimwi akulampa kwanguwo. Bazike mbebakali kubelesyegwa kuyaka. Mapaipi akali kutola myaka iili mbwiibede kupanga calo icakali kupa kuti kaadula, kwaambisya kuti kakuyandika kuyaka misemu.

Kuyungizya waawo, mapaipi akali kuyandika kwaakwabilila alimwi akwaabambulula. Aciindi cimwi, bantu bali 700 bakanjizyigwa mulimo wakulanganya mapaipi aaya mudolopo lya Rome. Aciindi cakuyaka bakali kubikkilizya azintu izyakali kuyakubagwasya kwaakuyandika kubambulula. Mucikozyanyo, bakali kucikonzya kusika kucibeela camupaipi icakali ansi kwiinda mukubelesya tuzila ntobakali kupanga itwakali kuya ansi. Ikuti kakuyandika kubambulula kupati, basyaazibwene bakali kwaanyona meenda kuzwa kucibeela eeci ciyandika kubamba.

Mapaipi Aamudolopo lya Rome

Kumatalikilo aamwaanda wamyaka watatu C.E., mapaipi aali 11 mapati ngaakali kuleta meenda mudolopo lya Rome. Mupaipi wakusaanguna iwakali kwiitwa kuti Aqua Appia, iwakayakwa mu 312 B.C.E. wakali kulampa makkilomita aali 16, alimwi cibeela cipati camupaipi ooyu cakali kwiinda ansi. Zibeela zyamupaipi uutegwa Aqua Claudia nkozicili asunu. Mupaipi ooyu wakali kulampa makkilomita aali 69, mpoonya wakajisi misemu mubusena bulampa makkilomita aali 10 yalo iyakali kulampa mamita aali 27 kuyamujulu!

Ino mapaipi aamudolopo akali kubweza meenda manji buti? Akali manji! Mupaipi wa Aqua Marcia iwaambwa kale, wakali kuleta meenda aasika kumalita aali 190 miliyoni mu Rome abuzuba. Meenda asika mudolopo, akali kukunka kuya mumatanki, azwa mumatanki akali kuya mumitabi yalo iyakali kutola meenda aaya kumatanki aambi naa kumasena nkwaakali kuyoobelesyegwa. Bamwi baamba kuti bwaapauzi bwameenda mudolopo lya Rome bwakayaambele cakuti abuzuba muntu umwi aumwi wakali kukonzya kuba amalita aameenda aasika ku 1,000.

Bbuku litegwa Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply lyaamba kuti Bulelo bwa Rome nobwakali kuyaabukomena, “mapaipi aameenda akali kusika koonse nkobwakali kulela.” Basilweendo baku Asia Minor, France, Spain, alimwi a North Africa noliba lino balagambwa kulangilila milimo yabasyaazibwene eeyi yakaindi iigambya.

^ par. 2 Bana Roma tiibakali bakusaanguna kupanga mapaipi aameenda. Izisi zimbi zyakaindi mbuli Assyria, Egypt, India, alimwi a Persia nzyezyakasaanguna kucita boobo.