Fetela kwa tshedimosetsong

Fetela go diteng

Alhambra—Kago ya Iselamo ya Maemo a a Kwa Godimo Kwa Granada

Alhambra—Kago ya Iselamo ya Maemo a a Kwa Godimo Kwa Granada

 Alhambra—Kago ya Iselamo ya Maemo a a Kwa Godimo Kwa Granada

KA MOKWADI WA TSOGANG! KWA SPAIN

“A bo ditlhamane le dingwao tse di boammaaruri le tse di itlhametsweng fela di le dintsi jang ne; a bo mmino le dipina tsa tanse tsa lorato le tsa ntwa le tsa maitseo, tsa Arabia le Spain di le dintsi jang ne tse di amanngwang le kago eno e kgolo ya kwa botlhaba!”—WASHINGTON IRVING, MOKWADI WA MOAMERIKA WA LEKGOLO LA BO19 LA DINGWAGA.

LEFELO le le itsegeng thata le le dirileng gore go kwalwe mafoko a a fa godimo ke Alhambra, e leng ntlo ya segosi e e tlhomologileng e e kgabisitseng toropo ya Spain e e bidiwang Granada. Alhambra e agilwe ka tsela e e tshwanang le dikago tsa Arabia kgotsa Peresia kwa borwa jwa Yuropa. Bontle jo bo sa tshwaneng le bope jwa kago ya teng ya phemelo bo nnile gone ka ntlha ya Bamoseleme ba Ba-Moor, ba ba ileng ba nna le tlhotlheletso e kgolo kwa Spain ka makgolokgolo a dingwaga. *

Kgosana ya Moarabia e bong Zawí ben Zirí ke ene a neng a simolola bogosi jo bo ikemetseng ka nosi jwa Granada mo lekgolong la bo11 la dingwaga. Bogosi jono bo ne jwa tsaya dingwaga di ka nna 500 bo ntse bo le gone, mme mo nakong eno Granada e ne ya gola thata mo go tsa botaki le tsa setso. Bogosi jono bo ne jwa phutlhama fa kgosi Ferdinand le kgosigadi Isabella ba Katoliki ba ne ba fedisa puso ya Bamoselema kwa Spain ka 1492.

Toropo ya Granada ya Ba-Moor e ne ya atlega thata morago ga gore toropo ya Córdoba e fenngwe ke masole a ditumelo tse di ipitsang tsa Bokeresete ka 1236. Granada e ne ya nna motsemoshate wa Bamoseleme ba Spain, mme babusi ba ba neng ba latela morago ga moo ba ne ba aga ntlo ya segosi ya Alhambra—e batho ba Yuropa ba neng ba ise ba ko ba e bone. Mokwadi mongwe yo o setswerere ka mafoko o ne a e tlhalosa a re ke “kago e ntle thata go di gaisa tsotlhe mo lefatsheng.”

Lefelo le Alhambra e agilweng mo go lone, le lone le legolo thata jaaka kago eno. Kafa morago ga ntlo eno ya segosi, go eme ditlhoa tsa dithaba tse di nang le kapoko tsa Sierra Nevada, tse di emetseng fa moragonyana ga yone jaaka e kete ke difikantswe mme bogodimo jwa tsone bo feta dimitara di le 3 400. Alhambra ka boyone e agilwe mo godimo ga Sabika, e leng thota e e tletseng ditlhare e e ikadileng ka boleele ya bogodimo jwa dimitara di le 150 fa godingwana fela ga toropo. Go ya ka mmoki wa lekgolo la bo14 la dingwaga, e bong Ibn Zamrak, tsela e thotana eno e okameng toropo ya Granada ka yone e lebega jaaka e kete ke monna yo o lorato yo o lebeletseng mosadi wa gagwe.

Toropo mo Gare ga Toropo e Nngwe

Leina leno Alhambra, le le rayang “bohibidu” ka Searabia, go ka direga gore le reelela mmala wa ditena tse Ba-Moor ba di dirisitseng go aga dipota tse di ka kwantle. Le fa go ntse jalo, batho bangwe ba rata tlhaloso ya bakwalahisitori ba Baarabia ba ba bolelang gore Alhambra e ne ya agiwa “go bonesitswe ka dirumola.” Ba bolela gore lesedi leo la bosigo ke lone le dirileng gore kago eno e nne le mmala o mohibidu o o kaiwang ke leina la yone.

Alhambra ga se kago fela ya segosi. E ka tlhalosiwa gape e le toropo mo gare ga toropo ya Granada. Kafa morago fela ga dithako tsa yone tse dikgolo go ikadile ditshingwana, mafelo a bobogelo, moago wa segosi, Alcazaba (kgotsa kago ya phemelo) tota le toropo e nnye. Tsela ya go aga ya Ba-Moor le dikarolo tse dingwe tse Alhambra e neng ya okediwa ka tsone moragonyana di bontsha botaki jwa Searabia jo bo tlhomologileng jwa mekgabisa e mesesane e e raraaneng mmogo le mekgwa ya botaki ya Metlha ya Ditlhabologo ya Yuropa ya mekgabisa e e bonalang sentle le e e lekalekanang.

 Alhambra e ntle jaana ka ntlha ya mokgwa o o neng o dirisiwa ke Ba-Moor le Bagerika ba bogologolo. Sa ntlha, ba ile ba dira gore mmala wa ditena le tsela e di leng ka yone e tsamaelane, e lekalekane e bile e sa raraana. Morago ga moo ba ne ba kgabisa kago eno ya bone e ntle. Jaaka fa mankge mongwe a bolela, “Ba-Moor ga ba bolo go nna ba dumalana le se batlhami ba dipolane ba se tsayang e le selo sa botlhokwa mo tirong ya go aga—e leng go kgabisa kago, e seng go aga mokgabisa.”

Go Keleka Alhambra

Fa o tsena ka Alhambra, o tsena ka kgoro e kgolo e e segogoropo, e e bidiwang Kgoro ya Tshiamiso. Leina la kgoro eno le gopotsa motho ka kgotla e ka dinako tsa Bamoseleme batho ba neng ba phuthegela mo go yone go tla go reetsa fa go sekwa dilo tse dinnye tse batho ba neng ba ngongorega ka tsone. Go ne go tlwaelegile thata kwa Botlhabagare gore go atlholelwe dikgetsi fa kgorong ya motse mme mokgwa ono o umakiwa mo Baebeleng. *

Mekgabisa e mentsi e e tlwaelegileng thata mo matlong a segosi a Arabia a a jaaka Alhambra, e dirilwe ka semente se se dirisediwang go dila dipota. Bataki ba ne ba gaba semente seno se go ditsweng lebota ka sone  gore se nne mekgabisa e e keteng ke lesire le le dirilweng ka matsetseleko e bo e boaboelediwa gantsintsi. Mekgabisa e mentle thata e e segogoropo e dirilwe gore e lebege jaaka e kete ke go rotha ga letsopa le le metsi mo legageng. Ntlo eno ya segosi gape e na le zillij—e leng dithaele tse di phatsimang tse di segilweng di bo di rulaganngwa bontle ka tsela e e raraaneng. Dithaele tseno tsa mebala e e galotseng di manegilwe mo karolong e e kwa tlase ya dipota ka tsela e e dirang gore di farologane sentle le mmala o o sa galolang wa mekgabisa ya semente e e fa godimo.

Lolwapa lo lo tlhomologileng go gaisa a mangwe mo teng ga Alhambra ke Lolwapa Lwa Ditau, lo lo tlhalosiwang e le “botaki jo bontle thata jwa Baarabia jo bo fitlhelwang kwa Spain.” Buka nngwe e e dirisediwang go kaela batho e tlhalosa jaana: “Tiro ya botaki jwa mmatota ke sengwe se go leng thata go se kopisa kgotsa go se dira sesha gore se nne fela jaaka se ne se ntse pele. . . . Mme fa o bona lolwapa lono lwa Grenada, o nna le maikutlo ao a gore lo ka se kopisiwe.” Diphashiti tsa teng tse di ruletsweng le dipilara tsa teng tse di tshesane di dikologile motswedi wa metsi o o tshegeditsweng ke ditau di le 12 tsa mmabole. Ke lengwe la mafelo a a tsewang ditshwantsho thata kwa Spain.

Ditshingwana Tse di Lapolosang Maikutlo

Alhambra gape e na le ditshingwana tse dintle thata, metswedi ya metsi le makadiba. * Go ya ka Enrique Sordo mo bukeng ya gagwe ya Moorish Spain, “tshingwana eno ya Se-Arabia e tshwana le paradaise e e tlang.” O bona dilo tsa Boiselamo gongwe le gongwe. Mokwadi wa Mo-Spain e bong García Gómez o ne a akgela jaana: “Paradaise ya Bamoseleme e tlhalosiwa ka botlalo mo bukeng ya Koran e le tshingwana e e ungwang sentle thata . . . e e nosediwang ke melatswana e e phothoselang.” Mo teng ga Alhambra, metsi a dirisiwa fela thata—e leng selo se batho ba ba tlwaelaneng le komelelo ya kwa sekakeng ba sa se tlwaelang. Batho ba ba tlhamang ditshingwana ba ne ba lemoga gore metsi a ka kgona go tsidifatsa mowa le gore motho a ka itumedisiwa ke go utlwa modumonyana o o lapolosang wa one fa a ntse a elela. Makadiba a a khutlonne a metsi, a loapi lo lo phatsimang lwa Spain lo bonalang mo go one a dira gore go nne jaaka e kete ke lefelo le le bulegileng thata le le bonesitsweng.

 Gaufi fela le Alhambra go na le Generalife, ntlo ya maemo e e agilweng mo lefelong le le didimetseng ya Ba-Moor le tshingwana e e jetsweng fa godimo ga Cerro del Sol, e leng thotana e e bapileng le Sabika. Generalife, e leng tshingwana e e rulagantsweng ka tsela ya Searabia, e ile ya bidiwa gore “ke nngwe ya ditshingwana tse dintle go di gaisa tsotlhe mo lefatsheng.” * Pele go ne go na le borogo jo bo neng bo golaganya tshingwana eno le ntlo ya segosi ya Alhambra, mme go lebega e ne e le ntlo ya maemo e babusi ba Granada ba neng ba iketla mo go yone. Go na le lolwapa lo lo yang kwa lefelong la Ditepisi Tsa Metsi. Fa baeng ba le fano ba kgatlhiwa ke lesedi, mmala le menko e le mentsi e e monate.

Khutsafalo ya Mo-Moor

Fa kgosi ya bofelo ya Granada, e bong Boabdil (Muḥammad XI), a sena go ineela a bo a naya Ferdinand le Isabella toropo eno, ene le ba lelapa la gagwe ba ne ba tshwanelwa ke go nna batshabi. Go begwa gore fa ba sena go tswa mo toropong eno, ba ne ba ema go sekae mo lefelong le le kwa godingwana le jaanong le bidiwang El Suspiro del Moro (Khutsafalo ya Mo-Moor). Fa ba le koo, ba ne ba leba kwa morago go boga ntlo ya bone ya segosi e ntle e khibidu la bofelo, mme go begwa gore mmaagwe Boabdil o ne a raya morwawe a re: “Lela jaaka mosadi o lelele se o paletsweng ke go se sireletsa jaaka monna!”

Gompieno bangwe ba batho ba le dimilione di le tharo ba ba etelang Alhambra ngwaga le ngwaga ba sa ntse ba ya mo lefelong leno. Fa ba le fano, fela jaaka Boabdil, ba kgona go bona toropo ya Granada sentle jaaka fa e ikadile fa tlase ga ntlo ya segosi ya Arabia—e leng lefelo le lentle thata la toropo eno. Fa o etela kwa toropong ya Granada letsatsi lengwe, le wena o ka kgona go tlhaloganya gore ke ka ntlha yang fa kgosi eno ya bofelo ya Ba-Moor e ile ya utlwa botlhoko.

[Dintlha tse di kwa tlase]

^ ser. 4 Ka 711 C.E., masole a Baarabia le Ba-Berber a ne a tsena mo Spain, mme mo dingwageng di le supa fela ke fa pheninsula eno e busiwa ke Bamoselema. Mo lobakeng lwa makgolo a le mabedi a dingwaga, toropo ya Córdoba e ne ya nna toropo e kgolo le e e tlhabologileng thata kwa Yuropa.

^ ser. 13 Ka sekai, Modimo o ne a laela Moshe jaana: “Itlhomele baatlhodi le badiredi mo teng ga dikgoro tsotlhe tsa gago . . . , mme ba atlhole batho ka katlholo e e siameng.”—Duteronome 16:18.

^ ser. 17 Baarabia ba ile ba simolola ditshingwana tse di batlang di tshwana le tsa Peresia le Byzantium mo kgaolong yotlhe ya Mediterranean, go akaretsa le Spain.

^ ser. 18 Leina leno le tswa mo go la Searabia la “Jennat-al-Arif,” le ka dinako tse dingwe le ranolwang e le “ditshingwana tse di kwa godimo,” le fa gone lereo leno go ka direga thata gore le kaye “tshingwana ya motlhami wa dipolane.”

[Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 15]

Alcazaba

[Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 16]

Lolwapa lwa Ditau

[Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 16, 17]

Ditshingwana tsa Generalife

[Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 17]

Ditepisi tsa Metsi

[Motswedi wa Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 14]

Line art: EclectiCollections

[Motswedi wa Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 15]

All except top photo: Recinto Monumental de la Alhambra y Generalife

[Motswedi wa Setshwantsho mo go tsebe 16]

All photos: Recinto Monumental de la Alhambra y Generalife

[Metswedi ya Ditshwantsho mo go tsebe 17]

Above photos: Recinto Monumental de la Alhambra y Generalife; bottom photo: J. A. Fernández/San Marcos