WE MULOMBENE kubadika Bible abadi bafunde mu kina Ebelu su? We kwalula’shi nya. Pangi tobandile su nkumona Bible abadi bafunde mu kina Ebelu. Anka we kutamisha lutumbu loobe bwa Bible odi naye pa kupusha myanda ibakitshine ungi muntu mulongye ngofu abetanyinaa bu Elias Hutter na ma Bible abidi abatushishe mu ludimi lwa kina Ebelu. Uno muntu badi kwanka mu siekele a 16.

Elias Hutter badi mutandjikwe mu kipwa kya 1553 mu Görlitz, ka musoko kapela ke pepi na mupaka wa eumbo dya Allemagne, Pologne na République tchèque. Hutter badi mulongye ndimi ya ku lupese lwa kutunduka nguba ku kilongyelo kikata kya Lutheran mu kibundji kya Iéna. Pabadi na bipwa 24, abadi bamusangule bu mulongyeshi a ludimi lwa kina Ebelu mu kibundji kya Leipzig. Bu bibadi mulongyeshi a bantu abakumina kushintuula myanda, batudile kaye kalasa mu kibundji kya Nuremberg. Mu kano kalasa, balongi abadi balombene kulonga ludimi lwa kina Ebelu, kina Greke, Latin, na ludimi lwa kina Allemagne munda mwa bipwa binanka. Ku tungi tulasa tukata sunga tupeela, bantu tababadi balombene kulonga myanda bino nya.

“BUWA BWA UNO BIBLE”

Mutwe wa mwanda wi pa kipusu kya Bible a mu kina Ebelu ababatushishe kwi Hutter mu kipwa kya 1587

Mu kipwa kya 1587, Hutter batushishe Bible mu ludimi lwa kina Ebelu, kipindji kya Bible kyabetanyinaa kwi bantu bebungi bu Kilombeno kikulu. Uno Bible abadi bamuudikye bu Derekh ha-Kodesh, dino eshina abadi bedyate mu mukanda wa Yeeshaya 35:8 na adipushisha’shi: “Eshinda dishidilwe.” Buwa bwa mushindo ubabadi bafunde maleta bubatakwile ungi muntu bwadya kwakula’shi “bintu byoso bi mwanka abilesha buwa bwa uno Bible.” Kadi kingi kintu kibadi kiikashe uno Bible buwa bukalabale nyi mushindo ubabadi abafubu naye kwi balongi bwabadya kulonga kina Ebelu.

Bwa kuuka mushindo ubadi uno Bible a Hutter na bukwashi bukata, banda kutala ino nkalakashi ibidi ibabadi abafumankana nayo kwi balongi nsaa yabatompo kubadika Bible mu kina Ebelu. Lwa kumpala, nyi maleta elekene, na abashi’abauku. Na lwa kabidi, pababadi abalungu maleta ku mbangilo kwa kishima (prefixe) sunga ku nfudilo kwa kishima (Suffixes) kishima kibadi akipatuula kingi kintu na bino bibadi abibakabila bwa kupusha. Bu kileshesho, banda kutala kino kishima kya mu kina Ebelu נפשׁ (kyabadi baluule bu ne’phesh), akipushisha’shi “anyima.” Mu mukanda wa Esekyele 18:4, kumpala kwakyo mbalungye ano maleta ה (ha), na akitusha kishima ki kumune הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh), akipushisha dingi “anyima.” Kwi muntu shi mulongye, kishima הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) ki kumweneka bu kilekene na נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Bwa kukwasha balongi baye, Hutter badi mufube na kyamo ki na nfundilo mubofule kubala—nfundilo e na maleta a mu kina Ebelu e misango ibidi, maleta akata na apeela. Badi mufunde kishima kyoso na maleta akata.  Bwa maleta ooso ababadi abalungu kumpala sunga kunyima kwa kishima, badi mwiafunde na maleta apeela. Bino bibadi abikwasha balongi bwabadya kutundula kishima kinabene kya mu kina Ebelu mu mushindo ubofule, na bibadi abibakwasha bwabadya kulonga ludimi kalolo. Mu Bible a Les Saintes Écritures. Traduction du monde nouveau (avec notes et références), mbafube na uno nfundilo umune mu mayi e kushi kw’esaki. * Kishima kinabene mbekifunde na maleta akata, kadi maleta abadi balungye kumpala sunga kunyima kwa kishima, mbeafunde mu maleta apeela. Kino kifwatulo ki mu dino esaki akilesha nfundilo badi mu Bible a mu kina Ebelu ababafundile kwi Hutter, mu mukanda wa Esekyele 18:4. Bino ngi byabadi bafunde mu Bible a Traduction du monde nouveau mu uno verse umune mu mayi e kuushi kw’esaki.

“KILOMBENO KIPYA” MU KINA EBELU

Hutter batushishe dingi kipindji kya Bible kyabetanyina kwi bantu bebungi bu Kilombeno kipya, mu ndimi 12. Uno Bible abadi bamutushe mu kibundji kya Nuremberg mu kipwa kya 1599. Na bantu bebungi abamwitanyinaa bu Nuremberg Polyglot. Hutter bakuminyine kutusha mpa na Bifundwe bya bena Kidishitu bya kina Greke mu ludimi lwa kina Ebelu. Anka, sunga “mbibadi na mpàngo ya kukimba makuta” bwa kumona bya kutusha uno Bible mu ino ndimi, bantu abakimbulaa myanda mbasangane’shi tabadi mupete ano makuta nya. * Ngi bwakinyi baatshile kitshibilo kya kwalula Bifundwe bya Kilombeno kipya bya mu kina Greke penda mu ludimi lwa kina Ebelu. Bu bibadi mutuule ingi myanda yoso ku lupese, Hutter bapwile uno mudimo wa kwalula Bible penda mu kipwa kimune!

Mmyanda kinyi ibuwa ibadi mu Bifundwe bya bena Kidishitu bya kina Greke bibabatushishe kwi Hutter mu kina Ebelu? Franz Delitzsch, mwina Ebelu mulongye ngofu badi kwanka mu siekele a 19 bafundile’shi: “Bible a Hutter a mu kina Ebelu badi na ngakwilo mwilekene ngofu na a bangi bena Kidishitu, na dingi ki nka na muulo bwa kumubadika, mwanda mwi bishima bibungi abikumu kwishimba na mu ngakwilo ebuwa.”

MMWIKALE NA BUKITSHISHI MUNDA MWA MAFUKU EBUNGI

Mudimo wa kwaluula mikanda ta ngwikashe Hutter bu mpeta nya; na ma Bible aaye tambeaule kwi bantu bebungi nya. Sunga mbyabya, mudimo waye ubadi na muulo na ngwikale na bukitshishi munda mwa mafuku ebungi. Bu kileshesho, Bible aaye a Kilombeno kipya abadi bamulumbuule na kumutusha dingi mu kipwa kya 1661 kwi William Robertson. Kunyima abamutushishe ndingi mu kipwa kya 1798 kwi Richard Caddick. Bu bibadi mwaluule ku bukwashi bwa bifundwe bya kina Greke bya ku kibangilo, Hutter badi mwaluule kalolo mwasu Kyʹri·os (Mwanana) na The·osʹ (Efile Mukulu) n’eshina “Yehowa” (יהוה, JHVH) pa mbalo yooso ibabadi beditentule mu Bifundwe bya kina Ebelu sunga mu mbalo yoso ibadi apusha’shi abesamba bwa Yehowa. Uno mwanda awitusankisha ngofu mwanda sunga byekala’shi mu ma Bible ebungi a Kilombeno kipya tambafunde eshina dy’Efile Mukulu, uno Bible a Hutter etupa kingi kishinkamisho akilesha’shi abitungu kwalusha eshina dy’Efile Mukulu mu Bifundwe bya bena Kidishitu bya kina Greke.

Ungi mususa ookamono eshina dy’Efile Mukulu, Yehowa, mu Bifundwe bya bena Kidishitu bya kina Greke sunga pwedipete mu mayi a kushi kw’esaki a mu Bible a Traduction du monde nouveau (avec notes et références), tentekyesha mudimo ubakitshine Elias Hutter na ma Bible aaye a mu kina Ebelu.

^ par. 7 Tala mayi e kuushi kw’esaki a kabidi mu Ezekiel 18:4 na mu Apandise 3B mu Bible a Traduction du monde nouveau (avec notes et références).

^ par. 9 Abimweneka’shi bangi bantu balongye babadi bapwe kutusha Kilombeno kipya mu kina Ebelu kumpala kwaye. Umune a kwabadi nyi Simon Atoumanos, mukata a kipwilo a mu Byzantine, mu kipwa kya 1360. A kabidi nyi Oswald Schreckenfuchs, muntu mulongye ngofu a mu Allemagne, mu kipwa kya 1565. Ano ma Bible tambeapalakashe kwi bantu bebungi na ngapwe kushimina.