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Chii Chinonzi Torah?

Mhinduro yeBhaibheri

Shoko reChirungu rekuti “Torah” rinobva pashoko rechiHebheru toh·rahʹ, iro rinogona kushandurwa kuti “murayiridzo,” “dzidziso,” kana kuti “mutemo.” * (Zvirevo 1:8; 3:1; 28:4) Mienzaniso inotevera inoratidza kuti shoko racho rechiHebheru rinoshandiswa sei muBhaibheri.

  • Shoko rekuti Toh·rahʹ rinowanzoreva mabhuku mashanu ekutanga eBhaibheri​—Genesisi, Eksodho, Revhitiko, Numeri, naDheuteronomio. Mabhuku acho anonziwo Pentateuch, kubva pashoko rechiGiriki rinoreva “mabhuku mashanu.” Mosesi ndiye akanyora Torah, saka inonzi “bhuku roMutemo waMosesi.” (Joshua 8:​31; Nehemiya 8:1) Zviri pachena kuti pakutanga rakanga rakanyorwa riri bhuku rimwe chete asi rakazokamurwa pava paya kuti zvive nyore kurishandisa.

  • Shoko rekuti Toh·rahʹ rinoshandiswawo richireva mitemo yakapiwa vaIsraeri pamusoro pechimwe chinhu, yakadai ‘semutemo [toh·rahʹ] wechinopiwa chechivi,’ “mutemo pamusoro pemaperembudzi” uyewo “mutemo pamusoro pomuNaziri.”​—Revhitiko 6:25; 14:57; Numeri 6:13.

  • Dzimwe nguva shoko rekuti Toh·rahʹ rinoreva dzidziso nemirayiridzo, ingava yevabereki, yevanhu vakachenjera kana kuti yaMwari pachake.​—Zvirevo 1:8; 3:1; 13:14; Isaya 2:3.

Chii chiri muTorah, kana kuti muPentateuch?

  • Nhoroondo yemabatiro aiita Mwari nevanhu kubva pakatanga kusikwa zvinhu kusvikira pakazofa Mosesi.​—Genesisi 1:27, 28; Dheuteronomio 34:5.

  • Zvairayirwa neMutemo waMosesi. (Eksodho 24:3) Mutemo wacho unoumbwa nemirayiro inodarika 600. Pamirayiro yacho, unonyanya kuzivikanwa unonzi Shema kana kuti munyengetero wekuratidza kutenda kwevaJudha. Chimwe chikamu cheShema chinoti: “Ida Jehovha Mwari wako nomwoyo wako wose nomweya wako wose nesimba rako rose.” (Dheuteronomio 6:4-9) Jesu akatsanangura kuti mashoko iwayo “ndiwo murayiro mukuru pane yose uye wokutanga.”​—Mateu 22:36-38.

  • Zita dzvene rekuti Jehovha rinowanika ka1 800. Torah hairambidzi kuti zita raMwari rishandiswe, asi kutoti ine mitemo inotaura kuti vanhu vaMwari vaifanira kurishandisa.​—Numeri 6:22-27; Dheuteronomio 6:13; 10:8; 21:5.

Pfungwa dzisiri dzechokwadi dzinofungwa nevanhu pamusoro peTorah

Zvavanofunga: Mitemo iri muTorah inogara nokusingaperi hapana painonzi haichashandi.

Chokwadi nezvenyaya iyi: Dzimwe shanduro dzemaBhaibheri dzinotaura nezvemitemo iri muTorah​—kusanganisira iya ine chekuita neSabata, basa reupristi uye Zuva Rokuyananisira dzichiti ‘zvicharamba zviripo’ kana kuti zvichagara “nokusingaperi.” (Eksodho 31:16; 40:15; Revhitiko 16:33, 34, Bhaibheri Dzvene) Kunyange zvakadaro, shoko rechiHebheru rakashandiswa pamavhesi aya rinogona kurevawo kusvika kunguva iri mberi isingazivikanwi, kwete kungoti nokusingaperi chete. * Sungano yeMutemo waMosesi payakanga yava nemakore anenge 900 ichishanda, Mwari akataura kuti aizoitsiva ‘nesungano itsva.’ (Jeremiya 31:31-33) ‘Nekutaura kuti “sungano itsva,” Mwari akaita kuti sungano yekare isashanda.’ (VaHebheru 8:7-13) Yakatsiviwa pachishandiswa rufu rwaJesu Kristu makore anenge 2 000 adarika.​—VaEfeso 2:15.

Zvavanofunga: Tsika dzechiJudha dzaiita zvekungotaurwa pamwe chete nebhuku rechitendero chavo rinonzi Talmud zvine ukoshi hwakafanana nezviri muTorah.

Chokwadi nezvenyaya iyi: Hapana uchapupu huri muMagwaro hunoratidza kuti Mwari akapa Mosesi mutemo wakaita zvekutaurwa pamwe chete newakaita zvekunyorwa muTorah. Pane kudaro, Bhaibheri rinoti: “Jehovha akati kuna Mosesi: ‘Nyora mashoko aya.’” (Eksodho 34:27) Mitemo yaiita zvekungotaurwa, iyo yakazonyorwa ikatanga kunzi Mishnah uye yakazowedzerwa kuva chikamu cheTalmud, inosanganisira tsika dzevaJudha dzakatangwa nevaFarisi. Kazhinji tsika idzi dzaipesana nezviri muTorah. Nekuda kwaizvozvo, Jesu akaudza vaFarisi kuti: “Makaita kuti shoko raMwari rishaye simba nokuda kwetsika [dzenyu].”​—Mateu 15:1-9.

Zvavanofunga: Vakadzi havafaniri kudzidziswa zviri muTorah.

Chokwadi nezvenyaya iyi: MuMutemo waMosesi maivawo nemurayiro wekuti Mutemo wese waifanira kuverengerwa vaIsraeri vese kusanganisira vakadzi nevana. Nei? “Kuti vateerere uye kuti vadzidze, nokuti vanofanira kutya Jehovha Mwari [wavo], vochenjerera kuita mashoko ose oMutemo [wacho].”​—Dheuteronomio 31:10-12. *

Zvavanofunga: MuTorah mune mashoko akavanzika.

Chokwadi nezvenyaya iyi: Mosesi, uyo akanyora Torah, akataura kuti mashoko aro akajeka uye anokwanisa kuverengwa nemunhu wese, haana kuti zvirimo zvinhu zvakavanzika. (Dheuteronomio 30:11-14) Kapfungwa kekuti muTorah mune zvinhu zvakavanzika kakabva paKabbalah, kana kuti tsika yechiJudha yekutenda mashura iyo inonzi inoshandisa nzira “dzakarukwa dzisinganzwisisiki” pakutsanangura Magwaro. *​—2 Petro 1:16.

^ ndima 3 Ona bhuku rinonzi Revised Edition of The Strongest Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, shoko rechi8451 pasi pechikamu chakanzi “Hebrew-Aramaic Dictionary-Index to the Old Testament.”

^ ndima 13 Ona bhuku rinonzi Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Volume 2, mapeji 672-​673.

^ ndima 17 Kusiyana nezvinodzidziswa neTorah pacharo, bumbiro remitemo yetsika dzechiJudha raiwanzorambidza vakadzi kudzidza Torah. Semuenzaniso, Mishnah rine mashoko akataurwa nemumwe mudzidzisi wechitendero anonzi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus ekuti: “Munhu wese anodzidzisa mwanasikana wake zviri muTorah ari kumudzidzisa zvinhu zvinonyadzisa.” (Sotah 3:4) Mubhuku rinonzi The Jerusalem Talmud akataura kuti: “Zviri nani kuti mashoko ari muTorah apiswe zvawo pane kuti adzidziswe vakadzi.”​—Sotah 3:​19a.

^ ndima 19 Semuenzaniso, Encyclopaedia Judaica inotsanangura nezvemaonerwo anoitwa Torah nevanhu vanotenda muchiKabbalah ichiti: “Torah hapana parinotaura zvinhu nenzira yakananga, asi chiripo ndechekuti rinogona kunge richireva zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana izvo zvinonzwisiswa nenzira dzakasiyana-siyana.”​—Second edition, Volume 11, peji 659.

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