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NHARIREYOMURINDI APRIL 2015

Kuwana Chinhu Chinokosha Chekare-kare Mumarara

Kuwana Chinhu Chinokosha Chekare-kare Mumarara

PAUNOFUNGA nezvepanorasirwa marara, chii chinouya mupfungwa dzako? Pamwe unofunga nezvekunhuwa kunoita marara acho. Hapana kana chinhu chinokosha chaungatarisira kuwana imomo.

Asi makore zana akapfuura, pakawanikwa chinhu chinokosha chakasiyana nezvimwe munzvimbo inorasirwa marara. Chinhu chacho rakanga risiri dombo rinokosha. Chaiva chii? Sei chichikosha kwatiri?

AKAITA MAHWEKWE NECHINHU CHINOKOSHA

Makore ekuma1900 ava kunotanga, Bernard P. Grenfell naArthur S. Hunt, vepaUniversity of Oxford, vakaenda kuEgypt. Ikoko, vakawana zvinyorwa zvakati kuti zvakagadzirwa nenhokwe, mumirwi yemarara yaiva pedyo neRwizi rwaNire. Pava paya, muna 1920, varume vaviri ava pavaiva pakati pekuongorora nekuronga zvinyorwa izvi, Grenfell akawana zvimwewo zvinyorwa zvakanga zvacherwa kuEgypt. Akazvitenga kuti zviende kuThe John Rylands Library iri muguta reManchester, kuEngland. Asi varume vaviri ava vakafa basa rekuongorora zvinyorwa izvi risati rapera.

Basa racho rakazopedziswa naColin H. Roberts, aivawo paOxford University. Paakanga achironga zvinyorwa zvacho, akawana chidimbu chechinyorwa chenhokwe chainge chakada kuenzana nechitupa cherata. Akashamisika paakaona mashoko aaiziva echiGiriki ainge akanyorwa ipapo. Rimwe divi raiva nemashoko ari pana Johani 18:31-33. Rimwe racho raiva nemamwe mashoko ari muvhesi 37 ne38. Roberts akaziva kuti akanga aita mahwekwe nechinhu chinokosha chaizvo.

KUONGORORA KUTI NDECHARIINI

Roberts akafunga kuti chinyorwa ichi chaiva chekare chaizvo. Asi chaiva chariini? Kuti azive, akaenzanisa manyorerwo acho nezvimwe zvinyorwa zvekare zvinozivikanwa nguva yazvakanyorwa. * Nzira iyi yakaita kuti akwanise kufungidzira kuti chakanyorwa riini. Asi aida kuva nechokwadi. Saka akachitora mufananidzo, ndokutumira vanhu vatatu vanoongorora zvinyorwa zvekare kuti vaone kuti chakanyorwa riini. Vakabuda nei?

Pashure pekuongorora manyorerwo emavara acho, vaongorori vatatu ava vakabvumirana kuti chinyorwa ichi chakanyorwa munenge muna 125 C.E., makore mashoma muapostora Johani afa! Zvisinei, nzira iyi yekuongorora hainyatsoratidzi hayo kuti zvinyorwa ndezvariini, uye mumwe anoita zvekuongorora zvinyorwa anofunga kuti chinyorwa ichi chinofanira kunge chakanyorwa chero nguva kubva mu100 C.E. kusvika muna 200 C.E. Pazvinyorwa zvose zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki zvakawanikwa, kachinyorwa aka ndiko kekare kupfuura zvose.

CHINYORWA ICHI CHINONZI THE RYLANDS FRAGMENT CHINORATIDZEI?

Sei chidimbu ichi cheEvhangeri yaJohani chichikosha chaizvo kuvanhu vanofarira Bhaibheri mazuva ano? Pane zvikonzero zviviri kana kupfuura. Chekutanga ndechekuti zvakaita chinyorwa chacho zvinotiratidza kuti vaKristu vekutanga vaikoshesa sei Magwaro.

Sei chinyorwa ichi cheEvhangeri yaJohani chichikosha kuvanhu vanofarira Bhaibheri mazuva ano?

Mumakore ari pakati pa100 C.E. na199 C.E., kwaiva nemhando mbiri dzezvinyorwa dzaiti mupumburu (scroll) uye kodhekisi (codex). Mipumburu yaiva mapeji akagadzirwa nenhokwe kana  matehwe, ayo aisonanidzwa kana kuti aibatanidzwa obva ava chinyorwa chimwe chete chakareba. Chinyorwa ichi chaiita zvekumononorwa kana munhu ava kuda kuverenga, kana apedza ochimonerera zvekare. Kazhinji kacho mupumburu wainyorwa kudivi rimwe chete.

Asi kachinyorwa kakawanikwa naRoberts kakanga kakanyorwa kuseri nekuseri. Izvi zvinoratidza kuti kanofanira kunge kakabva pakodhekisi, kwete pamupumburu. Kodhekisi yaiva nemapeji akagadzirwa nenhokwe kana kuti matehwe, ayo aisonanidzwa obva apetwa kuti aite sebhuku.

Sei tichiti kodhekisi yaiva nani pane mupumburu? VaKristu vekutanga vaiva vaevhangeri. (Mateu 24:14; 28:19, 20) Vaiparidza mashoko emuBhaibheri kwese kwavaiwana vanhu, mumisha, pamisika, uye mumigwagwa. (Mabasa 5:42; 17:17; 20:20) Saka kuva neMagwaro akabatanidzwa sezvakaita bhuku kwaibatsira chaizvo.

Magadzirirwo ainge akaitwa kodhekisi aiita kuti zvive nyore kuti ungano uye vanhu vakwanisewo kukopa Magwaro. Saka mabhuku eEvhangeri akakopwa kakawanda uye hapana mubvunzo kuti zvakaita kuti vaKristu vakurumidze kuwanda.

The Rylands fragment, kumberi uye kumashure

Chechipiri chinoita kuti chidimbu cheEvhangeri yaJohani chikoshe kwatiri ndechekuti chinoratidza kuti mashoko eBhaibheri epakutanga-tanga haana kuchinjwa paaikopwa. Kunyange zvazvo chinyorwa ichi chiine mavhesi mashomanana eEvhangeri yaJohani, mashoko acho anoenderana neari mumaBhaibheri edu iye zvino. Chinyorwa ichi chinoratidza kuti Bhaibheri harina kuchinjwa kunyange zvazvo rakakopwa kakawanda kwenguva yakareba.

Zvisinei, chidimbu ichi cheEvhangeri yaJohani chinongovawo zvacho chimwe chezviuru zvezvinyorwa zvekare zvinoratidza kuti mashoko emuBhaibheri haana kuchinjwa. Mubhuku rake rinonzi The Bible as History, Werner Keller akati: “[Zvinyorwa] izvi zvekare ndizvo zvinopa uchapupu hunopfuura hwose hwekuti mashoko atiinawo mumaBhaibheri edu ndeechokwadi uye akavimbika.”

Ndizvo hazvo kuti kutenda kwevaKristu hakubvi pane zvinowanikwa nevanochera matongo. Vanotenda kuti “Rugwaro rwose rwakafuridzirwa naMwari.” (2 Timoti 3:16) Kunyange zvakadaro, tinowedzera kuvimba neMagwaro patinoona kuti zvinyorwa zvekare zvinotsigira zvakagara zvataurwa neBhaibheri zvokuti: “Shoko raJehovha rinogara nokusingaperi”!—1 Petro 1:25.

^ ndima 8 Bhuku rinonzi Manuscripts of the Greek Bible rinoti nzira iyi inoshandiswa nenyanzvi “pakuongorora zvinyorwa zvekare.” Manyorero anoita vanhu anochinja nokufamba kunoita nguva. Saka kuchinja uku kunogona kuratidza kuti chinyorwa ndechariini kana chikaenzaniswa nezvimwe zvinonyatsozivikanwa nguva yazvakanyorwa.

Inzwa zvimwe

Bhaibheri Rine Mashoko Akarurama Nezveupenyu hwaJesu Here?

Funga nezveumboo huri mumabhuku eEvhangeri uye muzvinyorwa zvokutanga-tanga.