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NHARIREYOMURINDI SEPTEMBER 2014

Shanduro yeSyriac Peshitta—Inotibatsira Kuziva Zvakawanda Nezveshanduro Dzekutanga tanga dzeBhaibheri

Shanduro yeSyriac Peshitta—Inotibatsira Kuziva Zvakawanda Nezveshanduro Dzekutanga tanga dzeBhaibheri

Muna 1892, Agnes Smith Lewis naMargaret Dunlop Gibson, avo vaiva mapatya, vakaita rwendo nengamera kwemazuva mapfumbamwe, vachipfuura nemugwenga vakananga kumusha wemamonk wemuSt. Catherine uri mujinga reGomo reSinai. Nei vakadzi ava vainge vava kuda kusvitsa makore 50, vakaita rwendo urwu panguva yazvaiva nengozi kufamba munyika dzekumabvazuva? Mhinduro yacho inogona kusimbisa kuvimba kwaunoita nekururama kweBhaibheri.

Agnes Smith Lewis uye musha wemamonk wemuSt. Catherine

NGUVA pfupi asati adzokera kudenga, Jesu akapa vadzidzi vake basa rekuti vazivise nezvake “muJerusarema nomuJudhiya mose nomuSamariya uye kusvikira kurutivi ruri kure kwazvo rwenyika.” (Mabasa 1:8) Vadzidzi vakaita basa iri vachishingaira uye neushingi. Asi kuparidza kwavo muJerusarema kwakabva kwaita kuti vapikiswe zvakasimba, zvikaguma nekuurayiwa kwaStefani. Vadzidzi vaJesu vakawanda vakatizira muguta reAndiyoki, muSiriya, iro raiva rimwe remaguta makuru muUmambo hweRoma, raiva makiromita anenge 550 kuchamhembe kweJerusarema.—Mabasa 11:19.

Vadzidzi vakaramba vachiparidza “mashoko akanaka” nezvaJesu muAndiyoki, zvikaita kuti vakawanda vaisava vaJudha vatendeuke. (Mabasa 11:20, 21) ChiGiriki ndiwo mutauro waitaurwa nevakawanda muAndiyoki. Asi vanhu vaigara munharaunda dzaiva pedyo neguta iri vaitaura chiSyriac.

MASHOKO AKANAKA ANOSHANDURIRWA MUCHISYRIAC

Mumakore ekuma100 C.E., vaKristu vaitaura chiSyriac vairamba vachiwedzera, saka mashoko akanaka aifanira kushandurirwa mumutauro wavo. Saka zvinoita sokuti zvikamu zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki zvakatanga kushandurirwa muchiSyriac kwete muchiLatin.

 Munyori wekuSyria ainzi Tatian, uyo akararama kubva munenge muna 120-173 C.E., akabatanidza mabhuku echokwadi mana eEvhangeri kuva bhuku rimwe chete rinowanzonzi Diatessaron. Zita iri rechiGiriki rinoreva kuti “kubva [muEvhangeri] ina.” Bhuku racho rinofanira kunge raiva muchiGiriki kana kuti muchiSyriac. Zvinoita sokuti pakazosvika gore ra170 C.E., Tatian akanga atopedza kugadzira bhuku iri. Nokufamba kwenguva, Ephraem wekuSyria (310-373 C.E.) akabudisa chinyorwa chaitsanangura Diatessaron, zvichiratidza kuti bhuku racho raishandiswa nevaKristu vakawanda vekuSyria.

Bhuku iri rine zvarinotibatsira kuziva mazuva ano. Nei? Kuma1800, vamwe vaongorori veBhaibheri vaiti mabhuku eEvhangeri akanyorwa kubva muna 130 C.E. kusvika muna 170 C.E., saka haatauri zvakarurama nezveupenyu hwaJesu. Zvisinei, zvinyorwa zvekare zveDiatessaron zvakawanikwa kubva kuma1800 zvakaratidza kuti pakazosvika 150 C.E., Evhangeri dzaMateu, Mako, Ruka, naJohani dzakanga dzava kutoshandiswa nevakawanda. Saka dzinofanira kunge dzakanyorwa nguva iyoyo isati yasvika. Uyewo paaigadzira Diatessaron, Tatian haana kushandisa evhangeri dzinowanzonzi dzeapokirifa semashandisiro aakaita Evhangeri ina dzechokwadi, zvichiratidza kuti evhangeri dzeapokirifa dzaisaonekwa sedzechokwadi.

Shanduro yeSyriac Peshitta yemabhuku mashanu ekutanga emuBhaibheri, yemuna 464 C.E., ndiyo chinyorwa cheBhaibheri chakanyorwa musi chaiwo, chechipiri kubva pane chekare kupfuura zvose

Pakazosvika 400 C.E., shanduro yeBhaibheri yechiSyriac yakanga yava kushandiswa nevakawanda kuchamhembe kweMesopotamiya. Shanduro yacho iyo inofanira kunge yakaitwa kuma100 kana kuti 200 C.E., yaiva nemabhuku ose eBhaibheri kunze kwa2 Petro, uyewo 2 na3 Johani, Judha, uye Zvakazarurwa. Inozivikanwa sePeshitta, kureva kuti iri “Nyore” kana kuti “Inonzwisisika.” Peshitta ndiyo imwe yeshanduro dzekare kupfuura dzose uye dzinokosha dzinotibatsira kuziva zvakawanda nezveshanduro dzeBhaibheri dzekutanga tanga.

Chimwe chinyorwa chekare chePeshitta chine musi unoenderana na459/460 C.E., zvichiita kuti chinzi ndicho chekare kupfuura zvose, chine gore chairo rachakanyorwa. Munenge muna 508 C.E., shanduro yePeshitta yakagadziridzwa ikawedzerwa mabhuku mashanu aye akanga asimo. Yakanga yava kunzi Philoxenian Version.

ZVIMWE ZVINYORWA ZVECHISYRIAC ZVAKAWANIKWA

Kunenge kuti zvinyorwa zvese zvechiGiriki zvaizivikanwa zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki zvakawanikwa 1800 asati asvika, zvakanyorwa kuma400 C.E. kana kuti makore akawanda akazotevera. Izvi zvakaita kuti vaongorori veBhaibheri vafarire shanduro dzekutanga tanga dzakadai seLatin Vulgate neSyriac Peshitta. Panguva iyoyo, vamwe vaifunga kuti Peshitta yaiva shanduro yechiSyriac yekare yakagadziridzwa. Asi hapana shanduro yekare yakadaro yaizivikanwa. Sezvo nhoroondo yeBhaibheri rechiSyriac ichidzoka shure kuma100 C.E., shanduro yakadaro yaizobatsira kuziva nezvenhoroondo yekare kare yemagwaro eBhaibheri, uye yaizova inokosha chaizvo kuvaongorori veBhaibheri! Asi paiva neshanduro yekare yechiSyriac here? Yakazowanika here?

Chinyorwa chinonzi Sinaitic Syriac. Pakakomberedzwa pari kuratidza mashoko eEvhangeri ari kuonekera kure

Hongu! Pakatowanika zvinyorwa zviviri zvechiSyriac zvakadaro zvinokosha. Chokutanga chacho chaiva chekuma400 C.E. Chaiva chimwe chezvinyorwa zvakawanda zvechiSyriac zvakatorwa mumusha wemamonk uri mugwenga rinonzi Nitrian Desert riri kuEgypt, ndokuiswa muBritish Museum muna 1842. Chaidanwa kuti Curetonian Syriac nokuti chakawanikwa uye chakabudiswa naWilliam Cureton, uyo aishanda nemuchengeti wezvinyorwa zvemuBritish Museum. Chinyorwa ichi chinokosha chine Evhangeri ina, dzichitevedzana seizvi: Mateu, Mako, Johani, uye Ruka.

Chinyorwa chechipiri chichiripo nanhasi chinonzi Sinaitic Syriac. Panotaurwa nezvekuwanika kwechinyorwa ichi, tinonzwa nezvemapatya ambotaurwa kwekutanga. Kunyange zvazvo Agnes akanga  asina dhigirii rekuyunivhesiti, akadzidza mitauro 8 yaisanganisira chiSyriac. Muna 1892, Agnes akawana chinhu chinokosha mumusha wemamonk uri muSt. Catherine muEgypt.

Akaona chinyorwa chechiSyriac mune rimwe kamuri raiva nerima. Munyaya yaakanyora, akati “chakanga chisisayevedzi, nokuti chainge chakasviba zvisingaiti, uye mapeji acho akanga ava kutoda kunamana nekuti chakanga chagarisa chisingavhurwi.” Chakanga chakambonyorwa mamwe mashoko, ndokudzimwa, ndokuzonyorwazve mashoko echiSyriac aitaura nezvevasande vechikadzi. Asi Agnes akaonawo mamwe mashoko ainge asisanyatsooneki, uye kumusoro kwaiva nemashoko okuti, “yaMateu,” “yaMako,” kana kuti “yaRuka.” Akanga akatobata anenge mabhuku ose mana eEvhangeri echiSyriac. Nyanzvi dzava kufunga kuti chinyorwa ichi chakanyorwa makore ekuma300 C.E. ava kunopera.

Chinyorwa cheSinaitic Syriac chinoonekwa sechimwe chezvinyorwa zveBhaibheri zvinokosha zvakawanikwa, pamwe chete nezvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zvakadai seCodex Sinaiticus neCodex Vaticanus. Mazuva ano vakawanda vanofunga kuti chinyorwa cheCuretonian necheSinaitic, zvinotova zvinyorwa zvekare zveEvhangeri dzechiSyriac zvakanyorwa makore ekuma100 C.E. ava kunopera, kana kuti kutanga kwemakore ekuma200 C.E.

“SHOKO RAMWARI WEDU, RICHAGARA NOKUSINGAGUMI”

Zvinyorwa izvi zvingabatsira vadzidzi veBhaibheri mazuva ano here? Hongu! Funga nezveinonzi mhedziso refu mubhuku raMako, inotevera pashure paMako 16:8 mune mamwe maBhaibheri. Inowanika muGreek Codex Alexandrinus yekuma400 C.E., uye muLatin Vulgate, nezvimwewo zvinyorwa. Zvisinei, zvinyorwa zvairemekedzwa zvekuma300 C.E., zvakadai seCodex Sinaiticus uye Codex Vaticanus, zvaiperera pana Mako 16:8. Shanduro yeSinaitic Syriac hainawo mhedziso refu, zvichiratidza kuti mhedziso refu yakazowedzerwa pava paya, uye yakanga isiri chikamu cheEvhangeri yaMako.

Funga nezvemumwe muenzaniso. Muma1800, shanduro dzinenge dzose dzeBhaibheri dzaiva nemashoko edzidziso yenhema yeUtatu pana 1 Johani 5:7. Asi mashoko avakawedzera haawaniki muzvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zvekare kupfuura zvose. Haawanikiwo muPeshitta, zvichiratidza kuti ndeenhema.

Zviri pachena kuti Jehovha akachengetedza Shoko rake dzvene sezvaakavimbisa. Bhaibheri rinotivimbisa kuti: “Uswa hwakasvibirira hwaoma, ruva raoma; asi shoko raMwari wedu, richagara nokusingagumi.” (Isaya 40:8; 1 Petro 1:25) Shanduro inozivikanwa sePeshitta, yakaitawo basa rinokosha pakuita kuti mashoko akarurama eBhaibheri aende kuvanhu vose.

Inzwa zvimwe

Bhaibheri—Bhuku Rinobva Kuna Mwari

Bhaibheri ringakubatsira sei kukunda matambudziko ako? Nei uchigona kuvimba nezvarinotaura?