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Nharireyomurindi  |  June 2014

Varume Vatatu Vaitsvaka Chokwadi Kuma1500—Vakawanei?

Varume Vatatu Vaitsvaka Chokwadi Kuma1500—Vakawanei?

“CHOKWADI chii?” Mubvunzo uyu wakabvunzwa nagavhuna weRoma womuJudhiya, Pondiyo Pirato, kuna Jesu uyo aitongwa nagavhuna wacho. (Johani 18:38) Zviri pachena kuti Pirato akanga asingatsvaki chokwadi. Mubvunzo wake wairatidza kutsvinya. Zvinoita sokuti kuna Pirato, chokwadi chaienderana nemaonero emunhu uye zvaakadzidziswa kuti atende; hapana nzira chaiyo yokuziva nayo chokwadi. Vakawanda vanofungawo saizvozvo mazuva ano.

Vanhu vaienda kuchechi kuma1500 muEurope vainetseka kuti votenda zvipi. Vaikura vachitenda kuti papa wechechi yeRoma aiva nesimba uye vachitendawo dzimwe dzidziso dzechechi yacho, asi vainzwawo dzimwe dzidziso dzaiparadzirwa nevaibuda muchechi iyi vairamba vachiwanda muEurope panguva iyoyo. Vaifanira kutenda zvipi? Vaizoziva sei chokwadi?

Munguva iyoyo paiva nevarume vatatu, pavanhu vakawanda vakanga vakatsunga kutsvaka chokwadi. * Chii chaivabatsira kusiyanisa chokwadi nenhema? Uye vakawanei? Ngationei.

‘BHAIBHERI . . . NGARITIUDZE CHOKWADI NGUVA DZOSE’

Wolfgang Capito aiva murume wechiduku akadzika midzi mune zvaaitenda. Aidzidza zvokurapa, zvemitemo, uye zvechitendero, ndokuva mupristi muna 1512, uye akazoshanda achibatsira mukuru wemabhishopu muguta reMainz muGermany.

Pakutanga Capito akaedza kuderedza kushingaira kwevakabuda muRoma avo vaiparidza zvaipesana nechechi yacho. Asi pasina nguva, Capito pachake akatanga kuvatsigirawo. Akaitei? Sezvakanyorwa nemunyori wenhoroondo anonzi James M. Kittelson, paainzwa dzidziso dzakawanda, Capito aidavira kuti “Bhaibheri ndiro raipfuura zvose pakuongorora zvavaiparidza nokuti iro chete ndiro raiva nechokwadi.” Saka Capito akagumisa kuti dzidziso yekuti chingwa newaini zvepamisa yechechi yeRoma zvinochinja kuva muviri neropa raJesu uye yekukudza vasande dzaisava dzemumagwaro. (Ona bhokisi rakanzi “ Kuona ‘Kana Zvinhu Izvi Zvakanga Zvakadaro.’”) Muna 1523, Capito akasiya chinzvimbo chake chepamusoro chokushanda nemukuru wemabhishopu, ndokunogara muguta reStrasbourg, iro raiva muzinda wevakabuda muchechi yeRoma panguva iyoyo.

Vaya vaisabvumirana nedzidziso dzechechi vakanga vava kusangana pamusha waCapito muStrasbourg,  uye hapana mubvunzo kuti vaikurukura nyaya dzakawanda dzechitendero uye dzidziso dzeBhaibheri. Kunyange zvazvo vamwe vavo vakanga vachiri kutsigira dzidziso yeUtatu, bhuku rinonzi The Radical Reformation, rinoti zvinyorwa zvaCapito “hazvitauri nezvedzidziso yeUtatu.” Nei? Capito akafarira mashandisirwo aiitwa ndima dzemuBhaibheri nenyanzvi yezvechitendero, Michael Servetus, ichiratidza kuti dzidziso yeUtatu ndeyenhema. *

Capito aingwarira kuti asangotaura maonero ake nokuti kuramba dzidziso yeUtatu kwaigona kuurayisa. Zvisinei, zvinyorwa zvake zvinoratidza kuti akanga asingabvumirani nedzidziso yeUtatu kunyange paakanga asati aonana naServetus. Mumwe mupristi wechechi yeRoma akazonyora kuti, Capito nevamwe vake “vakaramba vachikurukura dzidziso huru dzisinganzwisisiki dzechitendero muchivande; [uye] vakaramba yeUtatu Hutsvene.” Pashure pemakore 100, Capito akazonyorwa pokutanga pavanhu vaizivikanwa nokunyora vachipikisa dzidziso yeUtatu.

Wolfgang Capito aidavira kuti ‘kusaongorora Magwaro’ ndiko kukundikana kukuru kwakaitwa nechechi

Capito aitenda kuti Bhaibheri ndiro rine chokwadi. Akanyora kuti, “Regai Bhaibheri uye mutemo waKristu zvitiudze chokwadi nguva dzose panyaya dzechitendero.” Dr. Kittelson, akati Capito “aisimbirira pakuti kukundikana kwenyanzvi dzechitendero kwaibva pakusanyatsoongorora Magwaro.”

Mumwe aidawo nemwoyo wose kudzidza chokwadi kubva muShoko raMwari ainzi Martin Cellarius (anozivikanwawo saMartin Borrhaus) uyo aiva murume wechiduku aigara pamba paCapito muna 1526.

‘KUZIVA MWARI WECHOKWADI’

Peji ine musoro webhuku raMartin Cellarius rinonzi On the Works of God, raakaenzanisa dzidziso dzechechi neBhaibheri

Cellarius akaberekwa muna 1499, uye aishanda nesimba pazvidzidzo zvake zvechitendero nezvephilosophy. Akazoshanda semudzidzisi muWittenberg, kuGermany. Sezvo muWittenberg muri imo makatangira nyaya yekubuda muchechi yeRoma, Cellarius akabva angozivana naMartin Luther nevamwe vaida kuvandudza dzidziso dzechechi. Cellarius aizosiyanisa sei mafungiro evanhu nechokwadi chemuMagwaro?

Maererano nezviri mubhuku rinonzi Teaching the Reformation, Cellarius aidavira kuti kunzwisisa kwechokwadi kunobva “pakuverenga Magwaro uchinyatsoongorora, pakuenzanisa zvinotaurwa neMagwaro pachawo, uye pakunyengetera nekupfidza.” Cellarius akawanei pakuongorora kwake Bhaibheri?

Muna July 1527, Cellarius akabudisa bhuku raitsanangura zvaakawana rinonzi On the Works of God. Akanyora kuti masakaramende echechi, akadai seaya anonzi anochinja kuva muviri waKristu pamisa, aiva ekufananidzira. Maererano naMuzvinafundo Robin Barnes, bhuku raCellarius “rinotsanangurawo nezveuprofita hwemumagwaro hwekuti pachava nenguva yenhamo nematambudziko iyo ichazoteverwa nekuvandudzwa kwezvinhu zvakasikwa uye kugutswa kwezvinhu zvose kudenga nepanyika.”—2 Petro 3:10-13.

Cellarius anewo mashoko mashoma aakanyora nezvaJesu Kristu. Kunyange zvazvo asina kupikisa dzidziso yeUtatu zvakananga, akasiyanisa “Baba Vekudenga” ne“Mwanakomana wavo Jesu Kristu,” ndokunyora kuti Jesu aiva mumwe wavanamwari vakawanda uye wevanakomana vaMwari wemasimbaose.—Johani 10:34, 35.

Mubhuku rake rinonzi Antitrinitarian Biography (1850), Robert Wallace akanyora kuti zvinyorwa zvaCellarius zvakanga zvisingatevedzeri dzidziso yeUtatu yakanga yakazara kuma1500. * Nyanzvi dzakawanda dzinogumisa kuti Cellarius anofanira kunge  akaramba dzidziso yeUtatu. Ange achitsanangurwa semumwe wemidziyo yaMwari “pakudzidzisa nezvaMwari wechokwadi uye Kristu.”

TARIRO YOKUTI ZVINHU ZVICHAGADZIRISWA

Munenge muna 1527, Johannes Campanus uyo aiva nyanzvi yezvechitendero uye aizivikanwa semumwe wenyanzvi dzaipfuura dzose munguva yake, akanga ava kugarawo muWittenberg. Kunyange zvazvo aigara mumuzinda wevakabuda muRoma, Campanus akatanga kusava nechokwadi nedzidziso dzaMartin Luther. Nei?

Campanus akaramba dzidziso yekuti chingwa newaini zvinochinja kuva muviri neropa raJesu uye yokuti muviri waJesu neropa rake zvinenge zviri pamwe chete nechingwa newaini. * Munyori anonzi André Séguenny akati, Campanus aitenda kuti “Chingwa chinongoramba chiri chingwa, asi kana chava sakaramende, chinenge chava kufananidzira muviri waKristu.” Pamusangano waikurukurwa nyaya idzi unonzi Marburg Colloquy wakaitwa muna 1529, Campanus akarambidzwa kutaura zvaakanga adzidza muMagwaro. Pashure peizvi, vamwe vake vemuWittenberg vakanga vasisawadzani naye.

Mubhuku rake rinonzi Restitution, Johannes Campanus akaratidza kusava nechokwadi nedzidziso yeUtatu

Vaya vaimbowadzana naCampanus vakanyanya kugumburwa nezvaaitenda pamusoro paBaba, Mwanakomana, uye mudzimu mutsvene. Mubhuku rake romuna 1532 rinonzi Restitution, Campanus akadzidzisa kuti Jesu naBaba vake vanhu vaviri vakasiyana. Akatsanangura kuti Baba neMwanakomana “vamwe chete,” sezvakangoitawo murume nemudzimai vanonzi “nyama imwe,” kureva kuti vanoshandira pamwe, asi vanongoramba vari vanhu vaviri. (Johani 10:30; Mateu 19:5) Campanus akataura kuti Magwaro anoshandisa muenzaniso wakafanana pakuratidza kuti Baba vane nzvimbo iri pamusoro peMwanakomana: “Musoro womukadzi murume; uyewo musoro waKristu ndiMwari.”—1 VaKorinde 11:3.

Zvakadini nemudzimu mutsvene? Campanus akashandisazve Bhaibheri ndokunyora kuti: “Hapana Rugwaro runotsigira kuti Mudzimu Mutsvene munhu wechitatu . . . Mudzimu waMwari unoita zvokushandiswa, pakuti Iye [Mwari] anogadzira uye anoita zvinhu zvose achishandisa simba rake.”—Genesisi 1:2.

Luther akati Campanus aimhura uye aiva mhandu yeMwanakomana waMwari. Mumwe wevakabuda muRoma akati Campanus aifanira kuurayiwa. Asi Campanus akanga asingavhunduki. Bhuku rinonzi The Radical Reformation rinoti, “Campanus aiva nechokwadi chokuti chechi yakawa pamusana pekutadza kunzwisisa nyaya yeUtatu uye vanhu sezviri muBhaibheri uye sezvaiitwa nevaapostora.”

Campanus haana kumbobvira afunga nezvekumutsa boka rechitendero. Akati akanga atsvaka chokwadi akachishaya, “mutumapoka twechitendero uye mapoka evakanga vasingabvumirani nezvaidzidziswa nechechi.” Saka aiva netariro yekuti Chechi yeRoma yaizoita kuti zvinhu zvinake nokudzorera dzidziso dzechokwadi dzechiKristu. Pakupedzisira vakuru vechechi yeRoma vakasunga Campanus, uye anogona kunge akapedza makore anopfuura 20 ari mujeri. Vanyori venhoroondo vanofunga kuti akafa munenge muna 1575.

 “IVAI NECHOKWADI NEZVINHU ZVOSE”

Kushingaira kudzidza Bhaibheri kwakaita kuti Capito, Cellarius, Campanus nevamwe vagone kusiyanisa chokwadi nenhema. Kunyange zvazvo zvimwe zvakawanikwa nevarume ava vaitsvaka chokwadi zvaisanyatsoenderana neBhaibheri, vakaongorora Magwaro uye vakakoshesa chokwadi chavakadzidza.

Muapostora Pauro akakurudzira vaKristu vaainamata navo kuti: “Ivai nechokwadi nezvinhu zvose; batisisai zvinhu zvakanaka kwazvo.” (1 VaTesaronika 5:21) Zvapupu zvaJehovha zvakabudisa bhuku rine musoro wakakodzera unoti, Bhaibheri Rinombodzidzisei Chaizvo?, kuti zvikubatsire pakutsvaka kwako chokwadi. Kuti uwane rako usingabhadhari, tapota ona peji 16 yemagazini ino, kana kuti enda panzvimbo yedu yepaIndaneti, jw.org.

^ ndima 4 Ona bhokisi rakanzi “Regai Zvose Zviri Zviviri Zvikure Pamwe Chete Kutozosvikira Pakukohwa,” riri papeji 44 mubhuku raZvapupu zvaJehovha—Vazivisi voUmambo hwaMwari, rakabudiswa neZvapupu zvaJehovha.

^ ndima 8 Ona nyaya yakanzi “Michael Servetus—A Solitary Quest for the Truth,” iri muAwake! yaMay 2006 yakabudiswa neZvapupu zvaJehovha.

^ ndima 17 Nezvekushandisa kwaCellarius shoko rokuti “mwari” achitaura nezvaKristu, bhuku racho rinoti: “Rakanyorwa kuti deus, kwete Deus, nokuti rokupedzisira [Deus] rinongoshandiswa kuna Mwari Mukurusa.”

^ ndima 20 Dzidziso yokuti muviri chaiwo waJesu unenge uripo paKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, uri “pamwe chete” nechingwa newaini, yakatangwa naLuther.