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NHARIREYOMURINDI MARCH 2014

Kuita Kuti Shoko raMwari Rizivikanwe muSpain Yekare

Kuita Kuti Shoko raMwari Rizivikanwe muSpain Yekare

“Chandinonyanya kutarisira ndechokuti pandinenge ndava kuenda [kuSpeini], ndikuonei uye mundiperekedze zvishoma ikoko pashure pokunge ndamboti gutsikanei nokuva nemi.”—VaRoma 15:24.

MUAPOSTORA Pauro akanyorera vaKristu vaainamata navo muRoma mashoko aya munenge mugore ra56 C.E. Bhaibheri haritauri kana Pauro akazoenda kuSpain. Chero zvingava zvakaitika, mashoko akanaka ari muShoko raMwari, Bhaibheri, akanga atosvika kuSpain pakazosvika makore ekuma200 C.E., kuburikidza nezvakaitwa naPauro kana kuti nemamwe mamishinari echiKristu.

Pasina nguva, chiKristu chakatanga kupararira muSpain. Saka Bhaibheri rakanga rava kufanira kushandurirwa muchiLatin kuti vanhu vacho varinzwisise. Chikonzero chacho chaiva chokuti pakazosvika makore ekuma100 C.E., Spain yakanga yava nenguva iri pasi peutongi hweRoma, zvikaita kuti chiLatin chive mutauro wainzwisiswa nevoruzhinji munharaunda yose yaitongwa neUmambo hweRoma.

MABHAIBHERI ECHILATIN AKABATSIRA VANHU VEMUSPAIN

VaKristu vekutanga muSpain vakagadzira shanduro dzakawanda dzechiLatin uye dzose dziri pamwe chete dzinodanwa kuti Vetus Latina Hispana. MaBhaibheri aya akashandiswa muSpain kwemakore akawanda Jerome asati apedza kushandura Bhaibheri rechiLatin raanonyanya kuzivikanwa naro rinonzi Vulgate, makore anenge 1 500 akapfuura.

Shanduro yaJerome yaakazopedza ari muBethlehem, kuPalestine, yakasvika kuSpain nokukurumidza. Lucinius, uyo aidzidza Bhaibheri uye ainge akapfuma, paakaziva kuti Jerome aishandurira Bhaibheri muchiLatin, aida kuwana shanduro yacho itsva nokukurumidza. Akatuma vanyori vatanhatu kuBethlehem kunokopa Bhaibheri racho voenda naro kuSpain. Zvishoma nezvishoma, Bhaibheri reVulgate rakaramba richiwedzera kushandiswa kupfuura reVetus Latina Hispana mumazana emakore akazotevera. Shanduro idzi dzechiLatin dzakaita kuti vanhu vemuSpain vakwanise kuverenga Bhaibheri uye kurinzwisisa. Asi pakaguma Umambo hweRoma, pakanga pava kudiwawo kuti Bhaibheri rishandurirwe mune mimwe mitauro.

BHAIBHERI PAMATOMBO

Kuma400 C.E., dzinza revaVisigoth uye mamwe madzinza ekuGermany akapinda muSpain nechisimba uye munyika yacho makava nemutauro mutsva unonzi Gothic. Vapambi vacho vaiva nechitendero chavo chechiKristu chinonzi Arianism, icho chairamba dzidziso yokuti Mwari anoumbwa nevanhu vatatu. Vaivawo neshanduro yavo yeMagwaro yechiGothic yakashandurwa naUlfilas. Bhaibheri racho raiverengwa muSpain kusvika pakupera kwemakore ekuma500 C.E., panguva yakatendeuka Reccared, mambo wevaVisigoth achienda muchechi yeRoma, ndokusiya chiArianism. Akaita kuti mabhuku ose echiArian aunganidzwe uye aparadzwe, kusanganisira Bhaibheri raUlfilas. Izvi zvakaita kuti zvinyorwa zvese zvechiGothic zvitsakatike muSpain.

Dombo rakanyorwa mashoko eBhaibheri muchiLatin, kuma500 C.E.

Asi Shoko raMwari rakaramba richipararira muSpain munguva iyi. Kuwedzera pachiGothic, paivawo nerimwe bazi remutauro wechiLatin raitaurwa nevakawanda muSpain, rakazoita kuti pave nemitauro yakawanda yakabva mauri yaitaurwa muIberian Peninsula. * Zvinyorwa zvekare kupfuura zvose zvebazi iri remutauro  wechiLatin zvinodanwa kuti Visigothic slates nokuti zvakanyorwa pamatombo akaita semunyakwe anonzi maslate. Zvinyorwa zvacho ndezvemakore ekuma500 C.E. neekuma600 C.E., uye zvimwe zvacho zvine ndima dzeMapisarema nedzeEvhangeri. Rimwe dombo racho rine Pisarema rechi16 rose.

Kuwanika kwendima dzeMagwaro dzakanyorwa pamatombo asingakoshi kunoratidza kuti vanhuwo zvavo vaiverenga uye vaikopawo Shoko raMwari panguva iyoyo. Zvinoita sokuti vadzidzisi vaishandisa magwaro aya eBhaibheri pakudzidzisa vana kunyora nekuverenga. Matombo aya akanga asingadhuri kana achienzaniswa nemipumburu yaidhura yematehwe yaishandiswa nevanhu vekare vezvitendero pakunyora maBhaibheri avo aiva nemifananidzo.

Zvimwe zviri muBhaibheri rine mifananidzo rinonzi León Bible. Kunyange zvazvo aikosha, maBhaibheri iwayo haana kubatsira zvakanyanya pakuparadzira Shoko raMwari kuvanhu

Rimwe remaBhaibheri aidhura zvikuru uye aiva nemifananidzo rakachengetwa muchechi yeSan Isidoro iri muLeón kuSpain. Rakanyorwa kuti nderemuna 960 C.E., rinorema dzinenge 18kg uye rine mapeji 516, peji imwe neimwe yakareba masendimita 47 uye yakafara masendimita 34. Rimwe remaBhaibheri akadaro rinonzi Bible of Ripoll, rinowanika muVatican Library uye rinoratidza kuti rakanyorwa munenge mugore ra1020 C.E. Iri nderimwe remaBhaibheri akagadzirwa zvemhando yepamusoro kupfuura ose ekare. Kuti agadzire Bhaibheri rakadaro, munhu aigona kupedza zuva rose achigadzira bhii rimwe chete rinotanga mutsara kana kuti vhiki yose achigadzira peji ine musoro wenyaya. Kunyange zvazvo aiva emhando yepamusoro, maBhaibheri iwayo haana kubatsira zvakanyanya pakuparadzira Shoko raMwari kuvanhu.

BHAIBHERI MUCHIARABIC

Kuma700 C.E., pakava nemumwe mutauro wakapinda muSpain pashure pokunge vaIslam vapinda nechisimba muIberian Peninsula. Munzvimbo dzakatorwa nevaMuslim, chiArabic chakanga chava kutaurwa kupfuura chiLatin, saka pakanga pava kudiwa Bhaibheri mumutauro mutsva uyu.

Kubvira kuma400 C.E. kusvika kuma700 C.E., Bhaibheri mururimi rwechiLatin uye chiArabic rakaita kuti vanhu vemuSpain vakwanise kuverenga Shoko raMwari

Hapana mubvunzo kuti shanduro dzakawanda dzeBhaibheri dzechiArabic, kunyanya dzeEvhangeri, dzaishandiswa nevanhu vemuSpain yekare. Zvinonzi bhishopu wekuSeville, ainzi John, akashandurira Bhaibheri rese muchiArabic kuma700 C.E. Zvinosuruvarisa  kuti shanduro dzakawanda dzechiArabic idzodzo dzakatsakatika. Imwe Shanduro yechiArabic yemabhuku eEvhangeri yekuma950 C.E., yakachengetwa muchechi iri kuLeón, muSpain.

Shanduro yechiArabic yeEvhangeri yekuma900 C.E.

MABHAIBHERI ECHISPANISH

Kuma500 C.E. kusvika kuma1500 C.E., pakava nemutauro wechiCastilian kana kuti chiSpanish muIberian Peninsula. Mutauro mutsva uyu waizobatsira zvikuru pakuzivisa vanhu Shoko raMwari. * Shanduro yekare kupfuura dzose yeBhaibheri rechiSpanish yakawanikwa munyaya yakanzi La Fazienda de Ultra Mar (Zvakaitika Mhiri Kwemakungwa), mukutanga kwemakore ekuma1200 C.E. Nyaya yacho ine nhoroondo yerwendo rwekuenda kuIsrael, uye ine mashoko emumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eBhaibheri uye emamwe mabhuku eMagwaro echiHebheru, nemamwe emuEvhangeri uye tsamba dzevaApostora.

Mambo Alfonso X akatsigira kushandurirwa kweBhaibheri muchiSpanish

Vakuru vakuru vechechi havana kufarira kushandurwa kweBhaibheri uku. Muna 1234, Council of Tarragona yakarayira kuti mabhuku ose eBhaibheri aiva mumitauro yevanhu vemunzvimbo yacho apiwe vafundisi vemo kuti apiswe. Chinofadza ndechokuti murayiro uyu hauna kumisa kushandurwa kweBhaibheri. Mambo Alfonso X (1252-1284), uyo anonzi ndiye akatanga kunyora chiSpanish, aida kuti Magwaro ashandurirwe mumutauro mutsva wechiSpanish uye akatsigira basa racho. Shanduro dzechiSpanish dzemunguva iyi dzinosanganisira shanduro inodanwa kuti Pre-Alfonsine Bible, uye imwe yakazotevera pashure pacho inonzi Alfonsine Bible, iyo yainge yakakura kupfuura maBhaibheri ose echiSpanish munguva yacho.

Mapeji eBhaibheri rinonzi Pre-Alfonsine (kuruboshwe) uye rinonzi Alfonsine (kurudyi) ekuma1200 C.E.

MaBhaibheri aya akabatsira pakusimbisa kushandiswa kwemutauro uyu mutsva wechiSpanish. Nyanzvi inonzi Thomas Montgomery yakataura nezvePre-Alfonsine Bible kuti: “Mushanduri weBhaibheri iri akaita basa rakanaka chaizvo kana tichitaura nezvekururama uye mutauro waakashandisa. . . . Mutauro wacho uri nyore, uye unonzwisisika, sezvo zviri izvo zvaidiwa pakushandura Bhaibheri revanhu vakanga vasingazivi chiLatin zvakanyanya.”

Zvisinei, maBhaibheri aya ekutanga echiLatin haana kushandurwa achibva mumitauro yakanyorwa nayo Bhaibheri asi akabva muLatin Vulgate. Kubvira mumakore ekuma1300 C.E., nyanzvi dzechiJudha dzakashandurira Magwaro echiHebheru akawanda muchiSpanish dzichiatora mumutauro wechiHebheru. Panguva iyi, Spain ndiyo yaiva nevaJudha vakawanda muEurope uye vashanduri vechiJudha vaikwanisa kuwana zvinyorwa zvechiHebheru zvaizovabatsira pakushandura kwavaiita. *

Mumwe muenzaniso ndeweBhaibheri rinonzi Alba Bible, rakapedzwa mumakore ekuma1400 C.E. Mumwe murume wechiSpanish aiva nemukurumbira, Luis de Guzmán, akatuma mudzidzisi wechiJudha ainzi Moisés Arrage kuti ashandurire Bhaibheri mucastizo Spanish (chiSpanish chisina kusangana nemimwe mitauro). Akapa zvikonzero zviviri zvakaita kuti akumbire shanduro iyi. Chekutanga, akati: “MaBhaibheri atiinawo mumitauro yakabva muLatin haana kururama,” uye akataura chechipiri achiti, “Vanhu vakangoitawo sesu vanoda chaizvo mashoko akanyorwa mumativi [eBhaibheri kuti vanzwisise] ndima dzakaoma.” Chikumbiro chake chinoratidza kuti vanhu vemunguva yake vaifarira chaizvo kuverenga uye kunzwisisa Bhaibheri. Chinoratidzawo kuti Magwaro aiva mumutauro waitaurwa nevanhuwo zvavo akanga ava kutoshandiswa nevakawanda muSpain.

 Vashanduri vekare uye vanyori vakabatsira kuti vanhu vakadzidza vekuSpain vakwanise kuverenga Bhaibheri mumutauro wavo pasina chaivakanganisa. Nemhaka yeizvi, munyori wenhoroondo dzekare, Juan Orts González akaona kuti “vanhu vekuSpain vakatanga kuziva Bhaibheri zviri nani kupfuura vekuGermany kana kuti vekuEngland nguva yakararama Luther isati yasvika.”

“Vanhu vekuSpain vakatanga kuziva Bhaibheri zviri nani kupfuura vekuGermany kana kuti vekuEngland nguva yakararama Luther isati yasvika.”—Munyori wenhoroondo Juan Orts González

Zvisinei, mukupera kwema1400 C.E., dare rechechi rekuSpain rakarambidza kushandura uye kuchengeta Magwaro mumutauro chero upi zvawo wemuSpain. Saka Bhaibheri rakaita nguva refu richirambidzwa muSpain. Pakapfuura makore 300 risati rava kubvumidzwa. Munguva iyoyo yainge yakaoma, vashanduri vashomanana vaiva neushingi vakashandurira Bhaibheri muchiSpanish vari kune dzimwe nyika, ndokupinza shanduro dzacho muSpain pachivande. *

Sezvinoratidzwa nenhoroondo iyi yekushandurwa kweBhaibheri muSpain yekare, vapikisi vakaedza zvakawanda kuti vamise kuziviswa kweShoko raMwari. Asi vakatadza kutsakatisa shoko reWemasimbaose.—Pisarema 83:1; 94:20.

Kushanda nesimba kwenyanzvi dzakawanda kwakaita kuti Bhaibheri ripinde uye riparadzirwe muSpain yose. Vashanduri vemazuva ano vari kutevedzera vashanduri vekare vakatanga kushandurira Magwaro muchiLatin, chiGothic, chiArabic, uye chiSpanish. Saka mamiriyoni evanhu vanotaura chiSpanish mazuva ano anogona kuverenga Shoko raMwari mumutauro wavanonyatsonzwisisa.

^ ndima 10 Mitauro yacho inosanganisira chiCastilian, chiCatalan, chiGalician, uye chiPortuguese.

^ ndima 17 Mazuva ano chiSpanish chinotova rurimi rwaamai rwevanhu vanenge mamiriyoni 540.

^ ndima 20 Ona nyaya inoti “Zita raMwari Uye Zvakaitwa naAlfonso de Zamora Kuti Anyore Mashoko Akarurama,” iri muNharireyomurindi yaDecember 1, 2011.

^ ndima 23 Ona nyaya inoti “Kurwira Bhaibheri reSpanish kwaCasiodoro de Reina,” muNharireyomurindi yaJune 1, 1996.