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NHARIREYOMURINDI FEBRUARY 2014

 NYAYA IRI PAKAVHA

Hondo Yakachinja Nyika Yose

Hondo Yakachinja Nyika Yose

Makore 100 akapfuura, varume vechidiki vanosvika mamiriyoni vakasiya misha yavo vachienda kuhondo. Vakaenda nechido, zvichikonzerwa nemaonero akanga apararira okuti munhu ade nyika yake. Mumwe murume wokuAmerica uyo akazvipira kuenda kuhondo muna 1914 akanyora kuti, “Ndiri kufara zvikuru ndichifunga nezvemazuva akanaka ari mberi.”

Asi pasina nguva mufaro wavo wakachinja ukava kusuwa. Hapana akanga ambofanoona kuti mauto akakura iwayo aizotambura kwemakore muBelgium uye muFrance. Panguva iyoyo, vanhu vakawanda vakaishevedza kuti “Hondo Huru.” Mazuva ano tava kuiziva sehondo yenyika yokutanga.

Hondo yenyika yokutanga yakanga yakakura zvechokwadi kana tichitaura nezvevanhu vakaurayiwa uye vakakuvara muhondo yacho. Vamwe vanofungidzira kuti vanhu vanenge mamiriyoni 10 vakafa uye vanenge mamiriyoni 20 vakakuvara zvakaipisisa. Zvakakonzerwawo nezvikanganiso zvakakura. Vakuru vakuru vezvematongerwo enyika vekuEurope vakatadza kumisa kusawirirana kwenyika dzakasiyana-siyana kuti kusazopedzisira kwava kusawirirana kwenyika yose. Chimwewo chokwadi chingangodaro chichinyanya kukosha ndechekuti “Hondo Huru” yakasiya mavanga asingadzimiki panyika. Yakachinja nyika zvokuti nanhasi tichiri kuona zvayakakonzera.

 ZVIKANGANISO ZVAKAITA KUTI VANHU VASAVIMBA NEVAMWE VANHU

Hondo yenyika yokutanga yakaitika pamusana pevanhu vasina kutanga vanyatsofunga. Bhuku rinonzi The Fall of the Dynasties—The Collapse of the Old Order 1905-1922, rinotsanangura kuti vatungamiriri vekuEurope vakaita zvisarudzo vasingazivi kuti zvaizoguma nedambudziko munyika yose muchirimo cha1914.

Kuurayirwa chigaro kwakaitwa mumwe mutungamiriri wekuAustria kwakaita kuti muvhiki shoma, nyika dzose dzaiva nemasimba akakura kuEurope dzipinde muhondo yadzaisada. Mazuva mashoma hondo yacho yatanga, mutungamiriri wehurumende yokuGermany akabvunzwa kuti, “Zvakamboitika sei?” Akapindura akasuwa kuti, “Aa, dai paine akazviziva.”

Vatungamiriri vakaita zvisarudzo zvakazoita kuti hondo itange vakanga vasina kana karuzivo zvako kezvaizopedzisira zvaitika. Asi pasina nguva refu masoja airwa hondo achihwanda mumakomba akazonyatsoona chokwadi chaicho. Vakaona kuti vatungamiriri vavo vezvematongerwo enyika vakanga vavabatisa pasi, vatungamiriri vavo vezvitendero vakanga vavanyengedza, uye vatungamiriri vavo vehondo vakanga vavarasisa. Sei?

Vatungamiriri vavo vezvematongerwo enyika vakanga vavabatisa pasi, vatungamiriri vavo vezvitendero vakanga vavanyengedza, uye vatungamiriri vavo vehondo vakanga vavarasisa

Vatungamiriri vezvematongerwo enyika vakavimbisa kuti hondo yacho yaizoita kuti pave nenyika itsva iri nani. Mutungamiriri wehurumende yekuGermany akazivisa kuti: “Tiri kurwira zvinhu zvatakashandira kuine runyararo, tsika nemagariro zvakabva kumadzitateguru edu uye remangwana redu.” Purezidhendi wokuAmerica ainzi Woodrow Wilson akatanga kutaura mashoko esirogani yakakurumbira yaivimbisa vanhu kuti hondo yaizoita “kuti nyika yose ive nehurumende dzegutsaruzhinji.” Uye kuBritain, vanhu vaifunga kuti yaizova “hondo yokupedza hondo.” Vose vakanga vakarasika.

Vatungamiriri vezvitendero vakanyatsotsigira hondo. Bhuku rinonzi The Columbia History of the World rinoti, “Vatungamiriri vezvitendero avo vaitofanira kunge vachiparidza shoko raMwari vakakurudzira vanhu kuenda kuhondo. Hondo yakaita kuti pave neruvengo rukuru.” Uye vatungamiriri vezvitendero vakatofutidza moto weruvengo panzvimbo pekuudzima. Bhuku rinonzi A History of Christianity rinoti, “Vatungamiriri vezvitendero vaikundikana, kana kuti kakawanda kacho vakanga vasingadi kukoshesa zvavaitenda sevaKristu kupfuura kukoshesa kwavaiita nyika dzavo.” Vakawanda vaiita zvavaiona sezviri nyore uye vaifunga kuti chiKristu uye kuda nyika dzavo zvaidyidzana chaizvo. Masoja echiKristu emachechi ose akakurudzirwa kuurayana muzita roMuponesi wavo.”

Vatungamiriri vehondo vakavimbisa kuti vaizokunda nokukurumidza uye zviri nyore, asi hazvina kuita saizvozvo. Pasina nguva, mauto airwisana akava panguva yakaoma, vachingourayana pasina divi raikunda. Pashure pacho, mamiriyoni emasoja akatarisana “nenguva ingangodaro iriyo yakaoma zvikuru uye yaiitwa utsinye hwakakura hwati hwambotsungirirwa nevanhu,” maererano nezvakataurwa nemumwe munyori wenhoroondo. Pasinei nekuti vanhu vakawanda zvikuru vakafa, vatungamiriri vehondo vakaramba vachitumira vanhu vavo kuti vaurayiwe nevavengi. Hazvishamisi kuti masoja akawanda akatanga kupandukira vatungamiriri vawo achiramba kuteerera.

Hondo yenyika yokutanga yakaita kuti vanhu vaite sei? Rimwe bhuku renhoroondo rine mashoko akataurwa nemumwe akarwa muhondo yacho, achiti: “Hondo yacho . . . yakavhiringidza mafungiro uye maitiro evanhu.” Zvechokwadi, hondo iyoyo yakaita kuti umambo hwakasiyana-siyana huparare. Aya ndiwo akava mavambo ezana remakore rakaurayiwa vanhu vakawandisa zvikuru kupfuura mamwe ose. Zvakatoita sokuti kwose kwose hurumende dzaichinjwa uye vanhu vairatidzira.

Nei hondo yakaita kuti zvinhu zviite manyama amire nerongo munyika yose? Yaingova tsaonawo zvayo yakakura here? Mhinduro dzemibvunzo iyi dzine zvadzinoratidza nezveramangwana here?