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NHARIREYOMURINDI DECEMBER 2013

‘Uchachera Mhangura Mumakomo’

‘Uchachera Mhangura Mumakomo’

Rimwe boka revanochera matongo raitsvaka zvinhu mumipata nemapako emurenje reJudhiya. Vamwe vaiva muboka iri vakasvika pane rimwe bako raiva pamusorosoro pemawere. Vaizowana zvinhu zvinokosha here zvaishandiswa nevanhu vekare kana kuti zvinyorwa zvakafanana neMipumburu yeGungwa Rakafa? Vakashamisika kuwana zvinhu zvinokosha zvainge zvakaunganidzwa, izvo zvakazodanwa kuti dura reupfumi reNahal Mishmar.

ZVINHU zvacho zvakawanikwa muna March 1961 uye zvainge zvakavigwa mune mumwe mutswe, zvakaputirwa nerukukwe rwetsanga. Zvaipfuura 400 uye zvizhinji zvacho zvaiva zvemhangura. Pazvinhu zvacho paiva nekorona dzakasiyana siyana, tsvimbo dzoumambo, maturusi, nezvimwe zvombo. Vaverengi veBhaibheri vanofarira zvakawanikwa izvi vachifunga nezvezvinotaurwa pana Genesisi 4:22 nezvaTubhari-kaini achinzi aiva “mupfuri wezvokushandisa zvemarudzi ose zvemhangura nesimbi.”

Pachine mibvunzo yakawanda nezvekwakabva zvinhu izvi zvinokosha. Zvisinei, kuwanikwa kwezvinhu izvi kunoratidza kuti mhangura yaicherwa, yainyungudutswa, uye yaigadzirwa kuita zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana kubvira kare kare munzvimbo dzinotaurwa muBhaibheri.

NZVIMBO DZAIWANIKWA MHANGURA MUNYIKA YAKAPIKIRWA

VaIsraeri pavakanga vava kuda kupinda muNyika Yakapikirwa, Mosesi akavaudza kuti: ‘Uchachera mhangura mumakomo [emunyika yacho].’ (Dheuteronomio 8:7-9) Vanochera matongo vakawana nzvimbo dzekare dzaicherwa mhangura uye kwayainyungudutsirwa muIsraeri nemuJodhani, uye nzvimbo dzacho dzinosanganisira Feinan, Timna, uye Khirbat en-Nahas. Nzvimbo dzacho dzinoratidzei?

MuFeinan uye muTimna makazara makomba aicherwa nevaitsvaka mhangura kwemakore anopfuura 2 000. Nanhasi mushanyi anogona kuwana zvidimbu zvematombo ane mhangura zvakazara munzvimbo dzacho. Vanhu vaichera mhangura kare kacho vaishanda nesimba vachichera matombo mahombe nematurusi akagadzirwa nematombo kuti vatore mhangura yavaiona. Mhangura yaiva pedyo payakanga yava kunetsa kuwana, vakawedzera kuchera pasi vachishandisa maturusi esimbi uye vachiita mapako akakura nemigodhi yakadzika. Mubhuku remuBhaibheri raJobho, munotsanangurwa zvaiitwa pakuchera kwacho. (Jobho 28:2-11) Iri raiva basa rakaoma; zvokuti mumakore ekuma200 kusvika ku500 C.E., vakuru vakuru vekuRoma vaitongera vanhu vaipara mhosva dzakaipisisa nevamwe vasungwa kuti vanoshanda mumigodhi yemhangura yekuFeinan.

KuKhirbat en-Nahas (zvinoreva kuti “Matongo eMhangura”) kune mirwi yakakura yemarara airaswa  paipiswa mhangura, zvichiratidza kuti kunofanira kunge kwainyungudutswa mhangura yakawanda. Nyanzvi dzinofunga kuti matombo ainge asati apiswa aiunzwa kunzvimbo yacho achibva kumigodhi yaiva pedyo yakadai seFeinan neTimna. Kuti mhangura iparadzaniswe nemamwe matombo asina basa, paishandiswa mvuto kuita kuti marasha awedzere kupisa kusvika 1 200°C kwemaawa masere kusvika kugumi. Dombo rairema 5kg raiwanzobudisa chigodo chemhangura chairema 1kg, uye chaibva chaumbwa kuita zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana.

KUSHANDISWA KWEMHANGURA MUISRAERI YEKARE

PaGomo reSinai, Jehovha Mwari akarayira kuti simbi iyi inopenya, yaicherwa munzvimbo yacho, ishandiswe pakuvaka tebhenekeri uye akazorayirawo kuti ishandiswe pakuvaka temberi muJerusarema. (Eksodho, chitsauko 27) VaIsraeri vanofanira kunge vaiva neruzivo rwekushanda nesimbi vasati vaenda kuIjipiti, kana kuti vanogona kunge vakazvidzidzira pavaiva kuIjipiti. Pavakazobuda muIjipiti, vakanga vava kugona kuumba mhuru vachishandisa simbi yakanyungudutswa. Vaikwanisawo kugadzira zvinhu zvakawanda zvemhangura zvaishandiswa patebhenekeri, zvakadai sebheseni hombe, mapoto, mapani, mafoshoro, uye maforogo.—Eksodho 32:4.

Nokufamba kwenguva pavakanga vava murenje, zvimwe pavaiva pedyo nePunoni (ingangova Feinan yemazuva ano), nzvimbo ine mhangura yakawanda, vaIsraeri vakanyunyutira nyaya yemana nemvura. Jehovha akavaranga nokutumira nyoka dzaiva neuturu, uye vanhu vakawanda vakafa. VaIsraeri pavakanga vapfidza, Mosesi akavareverera kuti varegererwe, uye Jehovha akamurayira kuti agadzire nyoka yemhangura oiturika padanda. Nyaya yacho inoti: “Zvaiti kana nyoka ikange yaruma munhu, iye akatarira nyoka yemhangura, aibva aramba ari mupenyu.”—Numeri 21:4-10; 33:43.

MHANGURA YAMAMBO SOROMONI

Zvakawanda zvaiva patemberi muJerusarema zvaiva zvakagadzirwa nemhangura

Mambo Soromoni akashandisa mhangura yakawanda zvikuru paigadzirwa temberi muJerusarema. Yakawanda yacho yakanga yaunganidzwa nababa vake, Dhavhidhi pavakakunda Siriya. (1 Makoronike 18:6-8) Bheseni hombe remhangura raigezerwa nevapristi rainzi “dziva resimbi yakanyungudutswa,” raikwanisa kutakura marita 66 000 emvura uye rinofanira kunge rairema matani 30. (1 Madzimambo 7:23-26, 44-46) Paivawo nembiru mbiri dzemhangura dzaiva pasuo retemberi. Dzainge dzakareba mamita 8, uye dzaiva nemisoro yakareba mamita 2,2. Dzaiva neburi pakati, dziine madziro akakora masendimita 7,5 uye dzainge dzakafara mamita 1,7. (1 Madzimambo 7:15, 16; 2 Makoronike 4:17) Zvakaoma kufungidzira uwandu hwemhangura yakashandiswa kugadzira zvinhu izvozvo chete.

Vanhu vanotaurwa muBhaibheri vaishandisawo mhangura mukurarama kwezuva nezuva. Somuenzaniso, tinoverenga nezvezvombo, zvisungo, zviridzwa, uye masuo zvaigadzirwa nemhangura. (1 Samueri 17:5, 6; 2 Madzimambo 25:7; 1 Makoronike 15:19; Pisarema 107:16) Jesu akataura nezvemari ye“mhangura” yokuisa muzvikwama, uye muapostora Pauro akataura nezva“Arekizanda mupfuri wemhangura.”—Mateu 10:9; 2 Timoti 4:14.

Pachine zvakawanda zvisati zvava kunyatsozivikanwa nevanochera matongo uye vanyori venhoroondo dzekare maererano nekwaibva mhangura yakawanda inotaurwa muBhaibheri, uye nezvedura reupfumi reNahal Mishmar. Zvisinei chokwadi chinotsigirwa neBhaibheri ndechokuti nyika yakagarwa nhaka nevaIsraeri yaiva ‘nyika yakanaka, ine makomo avaizochera mhangura.’—Dheuteronomio 8:7-9.