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NHARIREYOMURINDI SEPTEMBER 2013

Mitauro Yedu Yakabva pa“Rusvingo rweBhabheri” Here?

Mitauro Yedu Yakabva pa“Rusvingo rweBhabheri” Here?

“Jehovha akavaparadzira panyika pose vachibva ipapo, uye zvishoma nezvishoma vakarega kuvaka guta racho. Ndokusaka rakatumidzwa kuti Bhabheri, nokuti Jehovha akanga avhiringidza mutauro wenyika yose ipapo.”—Genesisi 11:8, 9.

NYAYA iyi yakanyorwa muBhaibheri yakanyatsoitika zvechokwadi here? Vanhu vakatanga kutaura mitauro yakasiyana panguva imwe chete sezvinotsanangurwa munyaya yacho here? Vamwe vanoshora nyaya yacho yemuBhaibheri inotsanangura kutanga uye kupararira kwakaita mitauro yevanhu. Mumwe munyori anoti: “Ngano yeRusvingo rweBhabheri ndeimwe yenyaya dzisina musoro dzinotaurwa nevanhu.” Mumwe mudzidzisi wechiJudha akatoti inyaya inoshandiswa “kuedza kutsanangura kwakabva marudzi asi pasina ruzivo.”

Nei vakawanda vachiramba nyaya yeBhabheri? Nekuti inopesana nedzimwe dzidziso dzinotsanangura kwakabva mitauro. Somuenzaniso, dzimwe nyanzvi dzinotaura kuti mitauro haina kungoerekana yavapo asi yakashanduka zvishoma nezvishoma kubva “mururimi rwaamai” rumwe chete. Vamwe vanodavira kuti mitauro yokutanga yakawanda yakatanga zvakasiyana, ichitanga iri mahon’era kusvika yava mitauro yakakwana. Dzidziso idzi nedzimwewo dzinopesana nadzo dzakaita kuti vakawanda vabvumirane namuzvinadzidzo W. T. Fitch, uyo akanyora mubhuku rake rinonzi The Evolution of Language kuti: “Hatisati tava nemhinduro dzinonyatsogutsa.”

Vanoita zvokuchera matongo nezvokutsvakurudza vakawanei nezvekutanga kwemitauro yevanhu? Zvavakawana zvinotsigira dzidziso dzevanhu here, kana kuti nyaya yeBhabheri? Kutanga ngatimbonyatsoongororai nyaya yacho yemuBhaibheri.

ZVAKAITIKA KUPI UYE RINI?

Bhaibheri rinoti nyaya yokuvhiringidzwa kwemutauro uye yokupararira kwevanhu yakaitika “munyika yeShinari,” yakazonzi Bhabhironi. (Genesisi 11:2) Zvakaitika rini? Bhaibheri rinoti, “nyika [vanhu vepanyika] yakakamurwa” mumazuva aPeregi, uyo akaberekwa makore anenge 250 Abrahamu  asati avapo. Saka zviri pachena kuti zvakaitika paBhabheri zvakaitika makore anenge 4 200 akapfuura.—Genesisi 10:25; 11:18-26.

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzinofungidzira kuti mitauro yemazuva ano yakabva pamutauro mumwe chete wokutanga, wavanoti rurimi rwaamai rwavanofunga kuti rwaishandiswa nevanhu makore anoda kusvika 100 000 akapfuura. * Vamwe vanoti mitauro yemazuva ano yakada kufanana nemitauro yakawanda yokutanga yaitaurwa makore anopfuura 6 000 akapfuura. Asi nyanzvi dzemitauro dzinotii nezvemitauro isisawaniki? Magazini inonzi Economist inoti, “Ipapo panonetsa. Kusiyana nenyanzvi dzinoongorora zvinhu zvipenyu, nyanzvi dzemitauro hadzina zvinowanikwa pakuchera matongo zvinodzibatsira kuziva zvaiitika kare.” Magazini yacho inowedzera kuti imwe nyanzvi yemitauro inowana mhinduro kuburikidza ‘nokuita zvokufungidzira.’

Asi, “zvinyorwa zvemitauro yekare” zvichiripo. Zvinyorwa izvi zvinoratidzei nezvekwakabva mitauro yevanhu? The New Encyclopædia Britannica inotsanangura kuti: “Zvinyorwa zvekare kupfuura zvose zvemutauro, zvinova ndizvo chete zvingawanikwa nevanhu ndezvemakore asingapfuuri 4 000 kana 5 000 akapfuura.” Vanochera matongo vakawana kupi “zvinyorwa zvemitauro yekare”? KuLower Mesopotamia, nzvimbo yeShinari yekare. * Saka, uchapupu huripo hunowirirana nezvinotaurwa muBhaibheri.

MITAURO YAKASIYANA, MAFUNGIRO AKASIYANA

Nhoroondo yemuBhaibheri inoti paBhabheri, Mwari ‘akavhiringidza mutauro wavo kuti varege kunzwanana mitauro yavo.’ (Genesisi 11:7) Saka vashandi vacho “vakarega kuvaka guta” reBhabheri uye vakapararira “panyika pose.” (Genesisi 11:8, 9) Naizvozvo Bhaibheri haritauri kuti mitauro yose yemazuva ano yakabva “parurimi rwaamai” rumwe chete. Asi rinotsanangura kuti pakangoerekana pava nemitauro mitsva, mumwe nemumwe uine mashoko anoratidza manzwiro uye mafungiro evanhu, uye yakanga yakatosiyana.

Hwendefa revhu rakanyorwa necuneiform, rakawanika kuMesopotamia remakore okuma 2 000 B.C.E.

Zvakadini nemapoka emitauro ari munyika mazuva ano? Yakafanana here kana kuti yakasiyana? Lera Boroditsky, musayendisiti wekushanda kweuropi paStanford University, akanyora kuti: “Nyanzvi dzemitauro padzairamba dzichitsvakurudza nezvemitauro iri munyika (inenge 7 000, uye mishoma chete ndiyo yakanyatsoongororwa), dzakatoona misiyano yakawanda yadzaisambofungidzira.” Kunyange zvazvo mimwe mitauro yakabva kwakafanana yakadai seCantonese neHakka iyo inotaurwa kumaodzanyemba kweChina ingafanana, yakatosiyana nemimwe mitauro yakabva kwakasiyana yakadai seWest Catalan kana kuti Valencian inotaurwa kuSpain.

Mitauro ine zvainoita pamafungiro evanhu uye matsananguriro avanoita zvinhu zvakavapoteredza zvakadai seruvara, uwandu, nzvimbo nezvimwewo. Somuenzaniso, mune mumwe mutauro munhu anoti, “Pane kapukanana paruoko rwako rwerudyi.” Asi mune mumwewo mutauro munhu angati, “Pane kapukanana paruoko rwako ruri kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero.” Kusiyana ikoko  kunotovhiringidza. Ndosaka vavaki vepaBhabheri vakatadza kupfuurira nebasa ravo rekuvaka.

KUNGOHON’A HERE KANA KUTI MUTAURO WAITOVA NEZVIKAMU ZVAKAKWANA?

Mutauro wekutanga waitaurwa nevanhu wakanga wakaita sei? Bhaibheri rinotaura kuti murume wokutanga, Adhamu aikwanisa kuumba mashoko matsva paaitumidza mhuka nezvisikwa zvinobhururuka mazita. (Genesisi 2:20) Adhamu akagadzirawo nhetembo kuti aratidze kufarira kwaaiita mudzimai wake, uye mudzimai wake akatsanangurawo zvakajeka murayiro waMwari uye migumisiro yokusamuteerera. (Genesisi 2:23; 3:1-3) Saka mutauro wekutanga waiita kuti vanhu vakwanise kukurukura uye kutaura mafungiro avo.

Kuvhiringidzwa kwakaitwa mitauro paBhabheri kwakaita kuti vanhu vatadze kunzwisisana uye kushanda pamwe chete. Asi, kungofanana nemutauro wekutanga, mitauro yavo yakanga iine zvose zvinodiwa pamutauro. Mumazana emakore akazotevera, vanhu vakavaka maguta aizara nevanhu, vakaumba mauto akasimba, uye vakatanga kuita zvokutengeserana nedzimwe nyika. (Genesisi 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Vangadai vakaita zvose izvi here kudai vakanga vasina mitauro yakakwana? Maererano neBhaibheri, mutauro wekutanga uye mitauro yakazotanga paBhabheri yaiva mitauro chaiyo yakakwana kwete kungohon’a.

Vanoita zvekutsvakurudza mazuva ano vanotsigirana nepfungwa iyi. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language inoti: “[Pavanhu vane] tsika dzakasiyana-siyana vakaongororwa, pasinei nokuti tsika dzavo ‘ndedzechinyakare’ zvakadini, [pakaonekwa kuti] vaiva nemitauro yakazvimirira kungofanana neyevaya vanonzi vane tsika dziri ‘kuenderana’ nenguva.” Uyewo, mubhuku rinonzi The Language Instinct, muzvinadzidzo wepaHarvard College anonzi Steven Pinker anoti: “Hakuna chinonzi mutauro usina zvikamu zvakakwana.”

ZVICHAITIKA KUMITAURO MUNE RAMANGWANA

Pashure pokuongorora zvinyorwa zvemitauro yekare, kusiyana kwakaita mapoka emitauro uye zvakanga zvakaita mitauro yekare, ndezvipi zvatingapedzisira tataura zvine musoro? Vakawanda vanozopedzisira vati nyaya yezvakaitika paBhabheri ndeyechokwadi.

Bhaibheri rinotiudza kuti Jehovha Mwari akavhiringidza mutauro wevanhu paBhabheri nekuti vakanga vamupandukira. (Genesisi 11:4-7) Zvisinei, akavimbisa kuti aizoita kuti “marudzi achinjire kumutauro wakachena, kuti ose zvawo adane zita raJehovha, kuti amushumire akabatana.” (Zefaniya 3:9) “Mutauro wakachena” kana kuti chokwadi chinowanika muShoko raMwari, chinoita kuti vanhu vemunyika yose vabatane. Zvine musoro kuti mune ramangwana Mwari achaita kuti vanhu vawedzere kubatana kuburikidza nokuvapa mutauro mumwe chete, achibvisa kuvhiringidzika kwakaitika paBhabheri.

^ ndima 8 Zvinotaurwa nezvemutauro zvinowanzoenderana nedzidziso yokuti vanhu vakashanduka vachibva kumhuka. Kana uchida kuona zvakawanda nezvedzidziso iyi, ona mapeji 27-29 ebhurocha rinonzi The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking, rakabudiswa neZvapupu zvaJehovha.

^ ndima 9 Vanochera matongo vakawana temberi dzakawanda dzakaita semapiramidhi pedyo neShinari yekare. Bhaibheri rinoti vavaki verusvingo rweBhabheri vaivaka nezvidhinha kwete nematombo, uye vaishandisa bhitumini sedhaka. (Genesisi 11:3, 4) The New Encyclopædia Britannica, inotaura kuti muMesopotamia, matombo “aiva mashoma kana kuti aisatombowanika,” asi bhitumini yakanga yakawanda.