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NHARIREYOMURINDI JUNE 2013

Pfuma Yakavanzwa Kwemazana Emakore

Pfuma Yakavanzwa Kwemazana Emakore

Nyanzvi yacho haidaviri zvairi kuona. Anonyatsoongorora aongororazve chinyorwa chekare-kare chaawana. Manyorerwo achakaitwa uye girama remutauro wacho zvaita kuti ave nechokwadi chokuti awana zvimedu zveshanduro yekare kupfuura dzose yeBhaibheri remutauro wechiGeorgian.

PFUMA iyi yakawanikwa mukupera kwaDecember 1922, nyanzvi yemutauro wechiGeorgian inonzi Ivané Javakhishvili payaitsvakurudza kuti manyorerwe emutauro wechiGeorgian akatanga sei. Akawana bhuku rechitendero chechiJudha rinonzi Jerusalem Talmud. Paairiongorora, akaona pasi pemashoko acho echiHebheru paine mashoko ainge asisanyatsooneka aiva mumutauro wechiGeorgian. *

Bhuku romuBhaibheri raJeremiya ndiro chinyorwa chainge “chakavanzwa” muTalmud icho chairatidza kuti ndechemakore okuma400 C.E. Bhuku iri risati rawanikwa, mupumburu wekare kupfuura yose weBhaibheri wechiGeorgian waizivikanwa ndewemakore okuma800 C.E. Zvisinei, panguva iyi pakabva patanga kuwanika mamwe maBhuku eBhaibheri ekuma400 C.E., kana kuti nguva iyi isati yasvika. Fungidzira uchiwana mashoko emuBhaibheri emumazana mashomanana emakore kubva panguva yaJesu nevaapostora vake!

Ndiani akashandura mashoko aya? Aiva munhu mumwe chete here kana kuti raiva boka revashanduri vakazvipira? Kusvika parizvino hapasati pawanikwa mashoko ezvakaitika kare anotipa mhinduro. Chero zvazvingava, chokwadi ndechokuti Bhaibheri kana kuti zvimwe zvikamu zvaro zvakashandurirwa muchiGeorgian kumakore okuma300 C.E., uye raiverengwa mururimi rwaamai nevanhu vokuGeorgia kubvira panguva iyi.

Bhuku rinonzi The Martyrdom of St. Shushanik the Queen iro rinofanira kunge rakanyorwa mukupera kwemakore okuma400 C.E., rine nyaya inoratidza kuti vanhu vokuGeorgia vaiziva Magwaro zvakadini. Paairondedzera nezvenyaya inosuruvarisa yamambokadzi, munyori wacho akanyora mamwe mashoko semanyorerwe aakaitwa, uye mamwe asina kutorwa sezvaari muMapisarema, muEvhangeri, uye mune mamwe mabhuku eBhaibheri. Anotsanangurawo kuti murume waShushanik ainzi Varsken uyo aiva gavhuna weGeorgian Kingdom, muKartli akasiya “chiKristu” achida kuedza kufadza vakuru vakuru vokuPersia, ndokupinda muchitendero cheZoroastrianism uye akamanikidza mukadzi wake kuti aitewo saizvozvo. Bhuku racho rinoti mukadzi wacho akaramba kusiya chiKristu uye ainyaradzwa neMagwaro munguva yaakanga asati aurayiwa.

 Zviri pachena kuti maBhaibheri echiGeorgian haana kuzombomira kushandurwa uye kukopwa kubvira mumakore okuma400 C.E. Mipumburu yakawanda yeBhaibheri iri mumutauro wechiGeorgian inoratidza kuti iri raiva basa revanyori nevashanduri vakazvipira. Ngatimboonai zvaiitika pakushandura uye kudhinda Bhaibheri sezvatinoongorora nyaya iyi inokurudzira.

KUWANDA KWESHANDURO DZEBHAIBHERI

“Ini, Giorgi, mumonk anozvininipisa, ndakashandura bhuku iri reMapisarema kubva muchiGiriki chemazuva ano kuenda muchiGeorgian ndichishanda zvakaoma.” Mashoko aya akataurwa naGiorgi Mtatsmindeli wokuGeorgia akararama mumakore okuma1 000 C.E. Nei paifanira kushandurwa Bhaibheri kana paitova neshanduro yechiGeorgian kwemazana emakore?

Mumakore okuma1 000 C.E., pakanga pangosara zvinyorwa zvishomanana zveBhaibheri zvekare zvakanyorwa nemaoko mumutauro wechiGeorgian. Mamwe mabhuku akanga asisawaniki zvachose. Uyewo, mutauro wacho wakanga wachinja zvokuti vaverengi vaiomerwa nokunzwisisa zvinyorwa zvakare kare. Kunyange zvazvo vamwe vashanduri vakaedza kuita kuti Bhaibheri rechiGeorgian rivepozve, basa rakaitwa naGiorgi ndiro rakanga rakakura zvikuru. Aienzanisa shanduro dzechiGeorgian dzaivapo nezvinyorwa zvechiGiriki, obva ashandura zvikamu zvainge zvisimo, kana kutoti mabhuku emuBhaibheri akazara. Masikati aiita basa rake semukuru-mukuru wemusha wemamonk, uye manheru aishandura Bhaibheri.

Ephrem Mtsire uyo akararama panguva imwe chete naGiorgi akaita kuti basa raGiorgi rienderere mberi. Akanyora mazano aizobatsira vashanduri pakuita basa ravo. Mazano acho aiva nemirayiridzo yokushandura yakadai sokushandura kubva mumutauro wepakutanga pose pazvaikwanisika, uye kunyatsotevedzera pfungwa dziri mumutauro uri kubviswa mashoko, asi uchishandura sematauriro anoita vanhu. Akanyorawo pfungwa yokuisa mashoko emuzasi uye zviratidzo zvinoendesa kune mamwe magwaro mushanduro dzokuGeorgia. Ephrem akashandura patsva mamwe mabhuku emuBhaibheri. Basa raGiorgi naEphrem rakaita kuti pave nepokutangira pabasa rokushandura.

Mumakore 100 akatevera, basa rokudhinda mabhuku rakawedzera zvikuru muGeorgia. Pakatangwa makoreji muguta reGelati nereIkalto. Nyanzvi dzakawanda dzinofunga kuti Bhaibheri rinodanwa kuti Gelati Bible, iro rakachengetwa kuGeorgian National Centre of Manuscripts rinotova shanduro itsva yeBhaibheri yakashandurwa neimwe yenyanzvi dzepamakoreji ekuGelati kana kuti ekuIkalto.

Kushandurwa kweBhaibheri uku kwakaita kuti vanhu vokuGeorgia vaite sei? Mumakore okuma1100, mumwe munyori wenhetembo anonzi Shota Rustaveli akanyora nhetembo inonzi Vepkhis-tqaosani (Knight in the Panther Skin), yave ichifarirwa zvikuru kwemazana emakore zvokuti yakasvika pakunzi Bhaibheri rechipiri revanhu vokuGeorgia. Imwe nyanzvi yokuGeorgia inonzi K. Kekelidze yakati pasinei nokuti mamwe mashoko emunhetembo yacho akatorwa muBhaibheri here kana kuti kwete, “dzimwe pfungwa  [dzemunyori] dzinonyatsoratidza zviri mundima dzakasiyana-siyana dzeBhaibheri.” Kunyange zvazvo nhetembo iyi iine mashoko ekuwedzeredza, inonyanya kutaura nezveushamwari, rupo, kuremekedza vakadzi, uye kuva nerudo rwechokwadi kuvanhu vausingazive. Tsika idzi nedzimwe dzinodzidziswa neBhaibheri zvange zvichiumba mafungiro evanhu vokuGeorgia kwenguva yakareba uye zvichiri kukosheswa mutsika dzavo.

MHURI YEUMAMBO INODHINDA BHAIBHERI

Mukupera kwemakore okuma1600, mhuri yeumambo hwekuGeorgia yaida zvikuru kuti Bhaibheri ridhindwe. Izvi zvakaita kuti Mambo Vakhtang VI avake nzvimbo yokudhindira muguta guru reGeorgia rinonzi Tbilisi. Zvisinei, mashoko emuBhaibheri akanga asati apera kugadzirirwa kuti adhindwe. Zvakanga zvava kuita sokuti Bhaibheri rechiGeorgia rakanga ravanzwazve. Paingova nezvimwe zvikamu zvaro zvisina mamwe mashoko uye mutauro wakashandiswa wainge usiri kuenderana nematauriro epanguva iyoyo. Saka basa rokuongororazve uye rokudzorera ndima dzeBhaibheri dzakanga dzabva rakapiwa kunyanzvi yemutauro yainzi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani.

Orbeliani akatanga kuita basa racho nemwoyo wose. Sezvo aiziva mitauro yakawanda yaisanganisira chiGiriki nechiLatin, akakwanisa kuverenga zvimwewo zvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana kusanganisira zvinyorwa zvekare zvokuGeorgia. Asi kuongorora kwake asina kwaakarerekera hakuna kufadza chechi yeOrthodox yemuGeorgia. Vafundisi vacho vakamupomera kuti aipandukira chechi uye vakaita kuti mambo amurambidze basa rokuongorora Bhaibheri. Maererano nezvakataurwa nevamwe vokuGeorgia, vafundisi vakamanikidza Orbeliani pamusangano wechechi kuti apise Bhaibheri raakanga ashanda kwemakore akawanda!

Asi zvinofadza kuti pachine kopi yechinyorwa chimwe chete chinonzi Mtskheta (Mcxeta), chinozivikanwawo seSaba’s Bible, icho chine mashoko aOrbeliani aakanyora nemaoko. Zvisinei, vamwe havana chokwadi kana iri riri iro Bhaibheri raida kuparadzwa nevafundisi. Mashoko aro okuwedzera ndiwo chete anonzi anoratidza zvisina mubvunzo kuti akanyorwa naOrbeliani.

Pasinei nezvipingamupinyi zvaivapo, kudhinda Bhaibheri kwakaramba kuchikosheswa nevamwe vemumhuri yeumambo. Zvimwe zvikamu zveBhaibheri zvakadhindwa mumakore ari pakati pa1705 na1711. Zvakaitwa nevemumhuri yeumambo vakadai saBakari naVakhushti zvakaita kuti pazodhindwa Bhaibheri rakazara muna 1743. Rakanga risisakwanisi kuvanzwazve.

^ ndima 3 Munguva dzekare, zvokunyorera zvainetsa kuwana uye zvaidhura. Saka zvainge zvakajairika kuti vanhu vadzime mashoko ainge akanyorwa pamipumburu, vonyora mamwe. Mipumburu yakadaro inonzi mapalimpsest muchirungu, rinova shoko rakabva mune rechiGiriki rinoreva kuti “kudzimwa zvakare.”

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