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NHARIREYOMURINDI FEBRUARY 2013

Chii Chinonzi “Evhangeri yaJudhasi”?

Chii Chinonzi “Evhangeri yaJudhasi”?

MUNA April 2006, munyika dzakawanda mapepanhau akabudisa nyaya dzaishamisa dzokuti chimwe chikwata chenyanzvi chakanga chichibudisa chinyorwa chekare chakanga chichangobva kuwanikwa chinonzi “Evhangeri yaJudhasi.” Nyaya dzacho dzaiti nyanzvi dzinofunga kuti chinyorwa ichi chinochinja zvachose maonero atinoita Judhasi, mudzidzi uya akatengesa Jesu. Nyanzvi idzodzo dzinoti Judhasi aiva gamba nokuti aiziva zvaifungwa naJesu uye akaita zvaakanga akumbirwa naJesu zvokuti amutengese kuti aurayiwe.

“Evhangeri yaJudhasi” ndeyechokwadi here? Kana iri yechokwadi, zvinoreva here kuti ine zvimwe zvinhu zvatanga tisingazivi nezvaJudhasi Iskariyoti, Jesu Kristu kana kuti vaKristu vepakutanga? Inofanira here kuchinja maonero atinoita Jesu nezvaakadzidzisa?

“EVHANGERI YAJUDHASI” YAKAWANIKWA SEI?

Hazvinyatsozivikanwi kuti “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” yakawanikwa sei. Hatizivi kuti yakawanikwa nani uye kupi asi chatinoziva ndechokuti mumwe munhu akazoita kuti iiswe pamusika unotengeswa zvinhu zvekare nechokunopera kwema1970 kana kuti kutanga kwema1980. Zvinoita sokuti yakawanikwa kuIjipiti muna 1978 muguva raiva mubako. Yaiva imwe yemagwaro mana aiva mubhuku rekare rakanyorwa mumutauro unonzi Coptic wakabuda mune wechiEgyptian chekare.

Bhuku racho iro rakanga rakaputirwa nedehwe, rakatanga kusakara nokukurumidza parakabviswa kuEgypt kwarakanga rakachengetedzwa kwemakore akawanda uko kune mamiriro okunze anopisa. Nyanzvi shoma dzakaratidzwa bhuku racho muna 1983 asi dzakanga dzisingakwanisi kuritenga nokuti raidhura zvisingaiti. Bhuku racho harina kuchengetedzwa zvakanaka kwemakore akatevera zvichibva zvaita kuti ritowedzera kusakara nokukurumidza. Mugore ra2000 bhuku racho rakazotengwa nemumwe mukadzi wokuSwitzerland aiita zvokutenga nokutengesa zvinhu zvekare. Akazoripa boka renyanzvi dzinoshanda dzichitsigirwa nesangano rinonzi Maecenas Foundation for Ancient Art uye reNational Geographic Society. Nyanzvi dzacho dzakabva dzapiwa basa rakaoma rokuti dzibatanidze mapepa acho kunyange zvazvo zvimwe zvipenga zvacho zvakanga zvava zvidiki  chaizvo. Nyanzvi idzi dzaifanira kuongorora kuti bhuku racho rakanyorwa rini uye dzaifanirawo kurishandura.

Imwe ongororo yavakaita yakaratidza kuti bhuku racho rinenge rakanyorwa makore anenge 1 800 kana kuti 1 700 akapfuura. Asi nyanzvi idzi dzaifungidzirawo kuti “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” iri mumutauro weCoptic yakatoshandurwa kare kupfuura apa kubva muchiGiriki chakashandiswa pakuinyora. Saka “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” yakanyorwa rini muchiGiriki uye zvii zvaiitika payakanyorwa?

“EVHANGERI YAJUDHASI” NDEIMWE YEEVHANGERI DZEVAGNOSTIC

Chinyorwa chinonzi “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” chakatanga kutaurwa nezvacho muzvinyorwa zvaIrenaeus uyo aizivikanwa semunyori wezvechiKristu akararama makore anenge 1 850 akapfuura. Irenaeus akanyora mubhuku rake rinonzi Against Heresies nezverimwe remapoka echitendero aidzidzisa zvaaipokana nazvo achiti: “Vanotaura nezvaJudhasi mutengesi vachiti ainyatsoziva zvinhu izvi, uye kuti iye chete ndiye aiziva chokwadi pane vamwe vose, zvichibva zvaita kuti akwanise kuita zvavaisanzwisisa zvokutengesa [Jesu]. Akabva aita kuti zvinhu zvose zvivhiringidzike kudenga nepanyika. Vanotaura nezvengano iyi yenhema vachiti ndizvo zvakaitika uye vakaipa zita rokuti Evhangeri yaJudhasi.”

“Haisi Evhangeri yakanyorwa panguva yaJudhasi nemumwe munhu ainyatsomuziva”

Chinangwa chaIrenaeus chaiva chokuratidza kuti dzidziso dzakawanda dzevaKristu vainzi vaGnostic avo vaizviti vane ruzivo rusina vamwe, dzaiva dzenhema. VaGnostic vakanga vari mapoka akawanda ezvitendero uye boka rimwe nerimwe raiva nemanzwisisiro aro nematsananguriro araiita zvaraifunga kuti ndicho chokwadi nezvechiKristu. VaGnostic vaitora dzidziso dzavo mumabhuku avaizvinyorera ayo akazowedzera kuwanda makore anenge 1 900 akapfuura.

Mabhuku evaGnostic ainyanya kutaura kuti vaapostora vaJesu vakakurumbira vakanga vasinganzwisisi zvaaidzidzisa uye kuti Jesu akataura imwe dzidziso yakangonzwisiswa nevashomanene. * Vamwe vaGnostic vaidavira kuti nyikadzimu yakanaka kupfuura nyika yatinogara yavakafananidza nejeri. Saka vaiti “mwari musiki” anotaurwa muMagwaro echiHebheru aiva mudiki kana zvichienzaniswa navanamwari vavo vavaidavira. Vaidavira kuti munhu aiva ne“ruzivo” rwechokwadi ndiye aigona kunzwisisa kuti munhu anofanira kusiya muviri wake wenyama kuti asununguke.

“Evhangeri yaJudhasi” inotorerwa padzidziso iyoyo. Inotanga nemashoko okuti: “Aya ndiwo mashoko aJesu aakaudza Judhasi Iskariyoti pasina vamwe vanhu kwemazuva masere ayo akaguma pangosara mazuva matatu kuti [Jesu] apemberere Paseka.”

Kuti iyi ingava ndiyo evhangeri yaitaurwa nezvayo naIrenaeus here, iyo inofungidzirwa kuti yakanga yava nemazana emakore yakarasika? Marvin Meyer uyo aiva mumwe wechikwata chakatanga kuongorora uye kushandura bhuku racho, anoti tsanangudzo pfupi yaIrenaeus “inonyatsoenderana neEvhangeri yaJudhasi iri mumutauro weCoptic.”

NYANZVI HADZINA CHOKWADI NEMATSANANGURIRWO AJUDHASI MUEVHANGERI YACHO

“Evhangeri yaJudhasi” inoti Jesu akaseka achitsvinyira vadzidzi vake pavakaratidza kuti vakanga vasina ruzivo rwechokwadi. Inotiwo pavaapostora 12 vaJesu, Judhasi ndiye chete ainyatsonzwisisa Jesu. Ndokusaka Jesu aimuudza pasina vamwe “zvinhu zvaiva zvisingazivikanwi zvoumambo.”

Chikwata chenyanzvi dzakatanga kushandura “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” chainyanya kutevedzera zvakanga zvataurwa naIrenaeus nezveevhangeri yacho. Vakashandura vachiti Judhasi aifarirwa naJesu semudzidzi aizonzwisisa zvinhu zvakanga zvisingazivikanwi nevamwe uye “aizopinda muumambo.” Vaitiwo kunyange zvazvo vaapostora vaizotsvaka mumwe munhu wokutsiva Judhasi, Judhasi aizova “mweya wechi13” uye “aizowana mubayiro unopfuura [wevamwe vadzidzi]” nokuti Jesu akamuudza  kuti “uchandibatsira kuti ndisiye muviri wangu wenyama.”

Vanyori vane mabhuku akawanda akatengeswa vakadai saBart Ehrman naElaine Pagels, avo variwo nyanzvi dzakakurumbira dzechiKristu chepakutanga uye chiGnostic, vakabva vangobudisa mabhuku avo aitaura nezve“Evhangeri yaJudhasi” ayo aiva akafanana chaizvo nezvaiva zvashandurwa nechikwata chepakutanga. Zvisinei, pasina nguva dzimwe nyanzvi dzakadai saApril DeConick naBirger Pearson dzakaratidza kunyunyuta. Dzakati sangano reNational Geographic Society rakangomhanyira kubudisa chinyorwa chacho chekare richida kungotsvaka mbiri. Nyanzvi idzi dzaitiwo sangano iri rakanga risina kutevedzera matanho anofanira kuitwa okuti dzimwewo nyanzvi dzitange dzaongorora bhuku risati rabudiswa kune voruzhinji.

Panyanzvi dzakaongorora chinyorwa ichi, hapana yakataura kuti chine nhoroondo yechokwadi yezvakaitika kare

DeConick naPearson vakashanda vakazvimiririra uye mumwe nomumwe akapa mhedziso yokuti vashanduri vepakutanga vakanga vashandura zvisizvo zvimwe zvikamu zvinokosha zvebhuku racho rakanga raita zvipenga. DeConick paakashandura bhuku racho akati Jesu aiti Judhasi aiva “Dhimoni rechi13” kwete “mweya wechi13.” * Uye akati Jesu akanyatsoudza Judhasi asingapotereri kuti aisazopinda “muumambo.” DeConick akashandurawo kuti Jesu haana kuudza Judhasi kuti ‘aizopfuura’ vamwe vadzidzi, asi akamuudza kuti: “Uchaita zvinhu zvakaipa kupfuura vamwe vose nokuti uchaurayisa muviri wangu.” DeConick aiona sokuti “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” ingano yekare yakanyorwa nevaGnostic inotsvinyira vaapostora vose. Saka mhedziso yakasimba yaDeConick naPearson ndeyokuti “Evhangeri yaJudhasi,” hairatidzi kuti Judhasi igamba.

NYAYA YE“EVHANGERI YAJUDHASI” INOTIDZIDZISEI?

Zvisinei nokuti nyanzvi dzinoona Judhasi womuevhangeri yacho segamba here kana kuti sedhimoni, panyanzvi dzakaongorora chinyorwa ichi, hapana yakataura kuti chine nhoroondo yechokwadi yezvakaitika kare. Bart Ehrman anoti: “Haisi Evhangeri yakanyorwa naJudhasi uye haitomboratidzi kuti yakanyorwa naye. . . . Haisi Evhangeri yakanyorwa panguva yaJudhasi nemumwe munhu ainyatsomuziva . . . Saka harisi bhuku rinogona kutiudza zvimwe zvinhu zvakanyatsoitika panguva yaJesu.”

“Evhangeri yaJudhasi” yakanyorwa nevaGnostic makore anenge 1 800 akapfuura uye pakutanga yaiva muchiGiriki. Nyanzvi hadzinyatsozivi kuti “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” ichangobva kuwanikwa ndiyo here yaitaurwa naIrenaeus. Asi “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” inopa uchapupu hwakajeka hwokuti pane imwe nguva vaKristu venhema vakatanga kudzidzisa dzidziso dzavo zvikaita kuti pagume pava nemapoka akasiyana-siyana aikwikwidzana. Pane kutaura kuti Bhaibheri nderenhema, “Evhangeri yaJudhasi” inosimbisa chokwadi chenyevero dzevaapostora dzakadai seyaPauro iri pana Mabasa 20:29, 30 inoti: “Ndinoziva kuti kana ndaenda . . . pakati penyu pachamuka varume vachataura zvinhu zvisina kururama kuti vatsause vadzidzi vavatevere.”

^ ndima 11 Evhangeri idzi dzinowanzopiwa mazita evanhu vavanoti ndivo vainyatsonzwisisa dzidziso dzaJesu dzechokwadi, sezvakaita “Evhangeri yaTomasi” uye “Evhangeri yaMariya Magadharini.” Pakawanikwa zvinyorwa izvi zvekare zvinenge 30.

^ ndima 18 Nyanzvi dziya dzinoti Judhasi idhimoni muchinyorwa chacho uye kuti ainzwisisa Jesu zviri nani kupfuura vamwe vadzidzi, dzinoti izvi zvakafanana nematauriro akaita madhimoni anotaurwa nezvawo munhoroondo dzeEvhangeri dziri muBhaibheri ayo akataura zvakarurama kuti Jesu aiva ani.—Mako 3:11; 5:7.