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NHARIREYOMURINDI SEPTEMBER 2012

Zita raMwari Rinoziviswa muchiSwahili

Zita raMwari Rinoziviswa muchiSwahili

“ChiSwahili.” Mutauro iwoyo unoita kuti vakawanda vafunge nezvenyika yeAfrica nemhuka dzinenge dzichipembera mumasango enzvimbo inonzi Serengeti inochengeterwa mhuka. Asi pane zvakawanda zvatinogona kudzidza nezvomutauro uyu nevanhu vanoutaura.

CHISWAHILI chinotaurwa nevanhu vakawanda zvokusvika mamiriyoni 100 munyika dzinenge 12 dziri nechepakati nedziri kumabvazuva kweAfrica. * Ndiwo mutauro unoshandiswa mumahofisi uye mune zvebhizimisi munyika dzinoverengeka dzakaita seKenya, Tanzania neUganda. Uye munyika dziri pedyo neidzi, ndiwo mutauro unotaurwa nevakawanda, unoita kuti vanhu vanobva kwakasiyana-siyana vaite zvebhizimisi uye vanzwanane.

Mutauro wechiSwahili wakabatsira chaizvo pakuita kuti vanhu vokuEast Africa vabatane. Somuenzaniso, muTanzania chete mune mitauro inoda kusvika 114 yemadzinza akasiyana-siyana. Fungidzira uchifamba makiromita anenge 40 kusvika ku80 chete kubva pamba, uchisangana nevanhu vane mutauro wausingatombonzwisisi! Pamwe pacho vanhu vomutauro mumwe chete vanenge vachingova mumisha miduku mishomanana. Ungataura sei navo? Saka zviri nyore kuona kuti sei zvakakosha chaizvo kuti pave nomutauro unonzwiwa nomunhu wose.

Matangiro echiSwahili

Zvinofungidzirwa kuti chiSwahili chakatanga kutaurwa munenge muzana remakore rechi10. Asi chakazotanga kuita zvokunyorwa  muzana remakore rechi16. Vanodzidzira kutaura chiSwahili vanokurumidza kuona kuti mamwe mashoko acho akada kufanana neechiArabic. Chiripo ndechokuti pamashoko ose echiSwahili, 20 muzana akatanga ari echiArabic, asi mamwe ose akabva mumitauro yomuAfrica. Saka hazvishamisi kuti kwemazana emakore, chiSwahili chainyorwa nemanyorero echiArabic.

Mazuva ano chiSwahili chava kunyorwa semanyorero atinoita isu anonzi Roman. Zvakafamba sei kuti manyorero acho achinje? Kuti tiwane mhinduro, tinofanira kudzokera nechepakati pezana remakore rechi19, mamishinari okutanga okuEurope paakauya kuEast Africa, nechinangwa chokuudza vagari veko mashoko eBhaibheri.

Shoko raMwari Rinosvika Kekutanga kuEast Africa

Muna 1499, Vasco da Gama paakaita rwendo rwake rwakakurumbira achitenderera kumaodzanyemba kweAfrica, mamishinari ekuPortugal akavaka misheni muZanzibar kuitira kuti aunze dzidziso dzechechi yeRoma kuEast Africa. Zvisinei, pasati papera makore 200, vaPutukezi vaiita zvechiKristu vakadzingwa muEast Africa nevanhu vomunharaunda yacho.

Zvakazotora mamwe makore 150 kuti Shoko raMwari riparidzwezve kuEast Africa. Panguva iyi mumishanari wokuGermany anonzi Johann Ludwig Krapf ndiye akanga ava kuriparidza. Paakasvika muMombasa kuKenya muna 1844, vazhinji vaigara pedyo negungwa kuEast Africa vaipinda chitendero chevaMuslim, asi vakawanda vaiva nechepakati peEast Africa vaitenda zvaidavirwa nemadzitateguru avo zvokuti zvinhu zvose zvakasikwa zvinofunga. Krapf akaona kuti zvaikosha kuti vanhu vose ivavo vave neBhaibheri.

Krapf haana kumbotambisa nguva, akabva angotanga kudzidza mutauro wechiSwahili. Achangosvika, akatanga basa rakaoma rokushandura Bhaibheri muna June 1844. Asi zvinosuwisa kuti mwedzi wakatevera wacho akafirwa nomudzimai waakanga ava nemakore maviri akaroorana naye, uye papera tumazuva akabva afirwazve nemwanasikana wavo mucheche. Kunyange zvazvo anofanira kunge akashungurudzika chaizvo, akaramba achiita basa rinokosha rokushandura Bhaibheri. Muna 1847, zvitsauko zvitatu zvokutanga zvebhuku raGenesisi zvakabudiswa muchiSwahili uye ndizvo zvakava chinyorwa chokutanga mumutauro uyu.

Chikamu chaGenesisi 1:1-3 chakashandurirwa muchiSwahili naJohann Krapf muna 1847

Krapf ndiye akatanga kushandisa manyorero echiRoman pane kunyora nechiArabic chakanga chagara chichishandiswa pakunyora chiSwahili. Akati zvimwe zvakaita kuti adaro ndezvokuti vanhu vokuEurope vaizoda kudzidza mutauro wacho “vaizotadza kuunzwisisa nemhaka yemanyorero echiArabic,” uyewo akati “zvaizova nyore kune vaitaura chiSwahili kudzidza mitauro  yokuEurope.” Manyorero echiArabic akaramba achishandiswa nevamwe kwemakore akawanda zvokuti zvimwe zvikamu zveBhaibheri zvakatobudiswa nemanyorero iwayo. Zvisinei, kushandisa manyorero echiRoman kuri kuita kuti vakawanda varerukirwe nokudzidza chiSwahili. Hapana mubvunzo kuti mamishinari akawanda uye vamwe vari kudzidza chiSwahili vari kufara chaizvo nezvokuchinja manyorero uku.

Krapf ndiye akava munhu wokutanga kushandurira Bhaibheri muchiSwahili, uye zvaakaita zvakabatsirawo vamwe vashanduri vaizotevera kuti vawane pokutangira. Ndiye akatanga kuburitsa bhuku rokutanga regirama rechiSwahili neduramanzwi racho.

Zita raMwari muchiSwahili

Chikamu chaMateu 1 chiri muchiSwahili chakanyorwa nechiArabic, muna 1891

Muchinyorwa chakatanga kubudiswa chine zvitsauko zvitatu zvokutanga zvaGenesisi, zita raMwari rakashandurwa kuti “Mwari Wemasimbaose.” Zvisinei, nechokunopera kwezana remakore rechi19, pane varume vakawanda vakasvika kuEast Africa vakaenderera mberi nebasa rokushandurira Bhaibheri rose muchiSwahili. Vamwe vacho vaiva Johann Rebmann, William Taylor, Harry Binns, Edward Steere, Francis Hodgson, naArthur Madan.

Chinonyanya kukosha mune dzimwe shanduro idzodzo dzepakutanga ndechokuti zita raMwari haringowaniki mundima shomanana chete asi rakazara muMagwaro echiHebheru. Vashanduri vokuZanzibar vakashandura zita raMwari kuti “Yahuwa,” asi vokuMombasa vakariti “Jehova.”

Muna 1895 pakanga patova neBhaibheri rizere rechiSwahili. Mumakumi emakore akatevera pakabudiswa shanduro dzakasiyana-siyana, kunyange zvazvo dzimwe dzacho dzisina kuwanikwa nevakawanda. Nechekokutanga kwezana remakore rechi20 pakatanga kuitwa basa rakakura rokuita kuti pave nechiSwahili chinonzwisiswa nevanhu vose vomuEast Africa. Saka pakabudiswa shanduro yeBhaibheri inonzi Swahili Union Version muna 1952 iyo yava kunyanya kushandiswa nevanhu vakawanda. Zvakaitawo kuti shanduro yezita raMwari yokuti “Yehova” ive iyo inonyanya kuzivikanwa muchiSwahili.

Ndima ine zita raMwari rokuti Jehovha papeji yokutanga yeshanduro yeSwahili Union Version

Zvinosuwisa kuti pakangomira kudhindwa kweshanduro idzodzo dzepakutanga, ndipowo pakatanga kunyangarika zita raMwari. Dzimwe shanduro dzemazuvano dzakatoribvisa zvachose kunyange zvazvo dzimwe dzacho dzinaro mundima shomanene. Somuenzaniso, muUnion Version zita raMwari rinongowanika ka15 chete, uye shanduro yacho payakavandudzwa muna 2006, zita racho rava kungowanika ka11 chete. *

Shanduro dzepakutanga dzine zita raMwari rakashandurwa kuti “Yahuwa” uye “Jehova”

Kunyange zvazvo shanduro iyi yangosara nendima shomanene dzine zita raMwari, ine chimwe chinhu chinokosha. Pane imwe peji iri kwokutanga mushanduro iyi pane mashoko akajeka anoratidza kuti zita raMwari ndiJehovha. Izvi zvakabatsira chaizvo vanhu vanotsvaka chokwadi kuti vaone zita raBaba vedu vokudenga mumaBhaibheri avo.

Asi hazvina kuperera ipapa. Muna 1996 pakabudiswa  Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yeMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, muchiSwahili. Iyi ndiyo shanduro yokutanga yechiSwahili yakadzorera zita raJehovha ka237 kubva muna Mateu kusvika kuna Zvakazarurwa. Muna 2003 pakabva pabudiswa Bhaibheri rakazara reShanduro Yenyika Itsva yeMagwaro Matsvene muchiSwahili. Kubva ipapo kusvika iye zvino pakadhindwa maBhaibheri 900 000 echiSwahili.

Pane kushandisa mazita okuremekedza, zita raMwari rava kuwanika muBhaibheri rose kwete pamashoko okusuma chete. Vanhu vanoda kuziva chokwadi pavanoverenga zita raMwari iro rinowanika kanopfuura ka7 000 muShanduro Yenyika Itsva yechiSwahili, vanoswedera pedyo naJehovha.

Bhaibheri iri rakashandurwawo nechiSwahili chemazuva ano chiri nyore kunzwisiswa nevanhu vose vokuEast Africa vanochitaura. Uyezve, harina pfungwa dzisina kururama dziri mune dzimwe shanduro. Saka munhu paanoriverenga anonyatsova nechokwadi chokuti ari kuverenga “mashoko akarurama echokwadi” akafemerwa neMusiki, Jehovha Mwari.—Muparidzi 12:10.

Vakawanda vanonakidzwa nokushandisa “Shanduro Yenyika Itsva yeMagwaro Matsvene” yechiSwahili

Vakawanda vanotenda chaizvo kubudiswa kwakaitwa Shanduro Yenyika Itsva muchiSwahili. Vicent, ane makore 21 uye mushumiri wenguva yakazara weZvapupu zvaJehovha anoti: “Chakanyanya kundifadza muShanduro Yenyika Itsva yechiSwahili ndechokuti ine mutauro uri nyore kunzwisisa uye yakadzorera zita rokuti Jehovha mundima dzarakabviswa nevamwe.” Vamwe amai vane vana vatatu vanonzi Frieda vanoti shanduro iyi yakavabatsira kutsanangurira vanhu chokwadi cheBhaibheri zviri nyore.

Pakapera makore 150 kubva pakatanga kushandurirwa chikamu chiduku cheShoko raMwari muchiSwahili kusvika pakazobudiswa Shanduro Yenyika Itsva yechiSwahili. Jesu akati ‘akanga aita kuti vanhu vazive zita raBaba vake.’ (Johani 17:6) Iye zvino Zvapupu zvaJehovha zvinopfuura 76 000 zvinotaura chiSwahili zviri nechepakati uye kumabvazuva kweAfrica, zvinonakidzwa nokubatsirawo kuita kuti zita raJehovha rizivikanwe nevanhu vose zvichishandisa Shanduro Yenyika Itsva.

^ ndima 3 Munyika idzi chiSwahili chinotaurwa nenzira dzakasiyana-siyana.

 

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