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Nharireyomurindi—Yekudzidza  |  December 2015

Shanduro yeNyika Itsva Yakadzokororwa Yakabudiswa Muna 2013

Shanduro yeNyika Itsva Yakadzokororwa Yakabudiswa Muna 2013

MAKORE akapfuura, Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yeMagwaro Matsvene yakadzokororwa kanoverengeka, asi shanduro ya2013 ndiyo ine zvinhu zvakawanda zvakachinjwa. Somuenzaniso, mavhesi akawanda emushanduro iyi ava nemashoko mashoma. Mamwe mashoko akajairika emuBhaibheri akachinjwa. Zvimwe zvitsauko zvakachinjwa kuti zviratidzike senhetembo, uye pakawedzerwa mashoko omuzasi anotsanangura mamwe mavhesi. Munyaya ino, hatisi kuzokurukura zvose zvakachinjwa mushanduro iyi, asi ngationgororei zvimwe zvacho.

Mashoko api emuBhaibheri akajairika akachinjwa? Sezvambotaurwa munyaya yapfuura, mashoko anoshandurwa kuti “Sheori,” “Hadhesi,” uye “mweya” akachinjwa. Asi kunze kweiwaya, pane mamwewo akachinjwa.

Somuenzaniso shoko reChirungu rinoshandurwa kuti “kuroverera” richitaura nezvekuurayiwa kwakaitwa Jesu, raigona kupa pfungwa isiri iyo nezvemaurayirwo aakaitwa, saka rakachinjwa. (Mat. 20:19; 27:31) Shoko rokuti “kusazvibata” rava kunzi “maitiro okushaya nyadzi,” izvo zvinonyatsobudisa pfungwa yekuratidza kusaremekedza iri mushoko racho rechiGiriki. Shoko reChirungu rinoshandurwa kuti “mwoyo murefu” rakachinjwawo kuti ribudise pfungwa chaiyo yairehwa nokuti raivapo raigona kupa pfungwa yekutambura kwenguva refu. Mashoko aimboshandiswa paitaurwa ‘nezvemitambo yemafaro akanyanyisa’ akatsiviwa nemashoko anonzwisiswa muChirungu mazuva ano. (VaG. 5:19-22) Mashoko eChirungu ataishandura kuti “mutsa worudo” akashandurwa zvakarurama kuti “rudo rwakavimbika.” Izvi zvinobudisa zvinorehwa neshoko rinoshandiswa muBhaibheri rinoreva zvakafanana neshoko rokuti “kutendeka.”—Pis. 36:5; 89:1.

Pane mamwe mashoko aiwanzoshandurwa pachishandiswa shoko rimwe chete pose paaiwanika, asi iye zvino akashandurwa zvichienderana nekuti vhesi yacho iri kutaura nezvei. Somuenzaniso, shoko rechiHebheru rekuti ʽoh·lamʹ, iro raiwanzoshandurwa kuti “nguva isingazivikanwi” rinorevawo kuti “nokusingagumi.” Izvi zvava kuita kuti mavhesi akadai saPisarema 90:2 naMika 5:2 anzwike zvakanaka mushanduro yeChirungu.

Shoko rechiHebheru nerechiGiriki rinoshandurwa kuti “mbeu” rinogona kureva mbeu chaiyo kana kuti rinogona kunge richifananidzira “mwana.” Kare Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yaishandura shoko racho kuti “mbeu” pose paraiwanika muchiHebheru uye muchiGiriki, kusanganisira pana Genesisi 3:15. Asi muChirungu, kushandisa shoko rinoshandurwa kuti “mbeu”  zvichireva mwana hakuchisina kunyanya kujairika mazuva ano. Ndokusaka pana Genesisi 3:15, nemamwe mavhesi anotaura nezvembeu achireva mwana, pakangoshandiswa shoko rokuti “mwana.” (Gen. 22:17, 18; Zvak. 12:17) Pane mamwe mavhesi, shoko iri rakashandurwa zvichienderana nekuti vhesi yacho iri kutaura nezvei.—Gen. 1:11; Pis. 22:30; Isa. 57:3.

Nei mamwe mavhesi aiva akashandurwa shoko neshoko akachinjwa? Mashoko okuwedzera ari mushanduro ya2013 yakadzokororwa anoratidza kuti shanduro yakanaka yeBhaibheri inofanira “kushandura pfungwa iri kurehwa kana kushandura shoko neshoko kusingaiti.” Kana zvirungamutauro zvakashandiswa pakanyorwa Bhaibheri zvichinzwisisika mune mimwe mitauro, zvaingoshandurwa sezvazviri. Izvi ndizvo zvakashandiswa pana Zvakazarurwa 2:23. Ipapo mashoko okuti, “anoongorora . . . mwoyo,” anonzwisisika mumitauro yakawanda. Asi mashoko ari muvhesi iyoyo okuti “anoongorora itsvo,” anogona kusanzwisiswa, saka muChirungu shoko rokuti “itsvo” rakashandurwa kuti ribudise pfungwa yairehwa yokuti “zviri kufungwa nemunhu zvisingazivikanwi nevamwe.” Saizvozvowo, pana Dheuteronomio 32:14, dimikira rokuti “mafuta eitsvo egorosi” rakashandurwa zvinonzwisisika kuti “gorosi rakanakisisa.” Izvi ndizvo zvakaitawo kuti mashoko okuti ‘ndine miromo isina kudzingiswa’ atsiviwe neanonzwisisika okuti “ndinonetseka pakutaura.”—Eks. 6:12.

Nei mashoko eChirungu aishandurwa kuti “vanakomana vaIsraeri” ava kushandurwa kuti “vaIsraeri” uye okuti ‘mwanakomana asina baba’ ava kungonzi ‘mwana asina baba’? Mashoko echiHebheru anoratidza kuti munhu ari kurehwa murume here kana kuti mukadzi. Asi pamwe pacho pangaita separi kutaurwa varume chete asi pachirehwa vose varume nevakadzi. Somuenzaniso, mamwe mavhesi anoratidza kuti mashoko okuti “vanakomana vaIsraeri” aisanganisira varume nevakadzi, saka mushanduro itsva yeChirungu, mashoko aya akashandurwa pamavhesi akawanda achinzi “vaIsraeri.”—Eks. 1:7; 35:29; 2 Madz. 8:12.

Shoko rechiHebheru rinoreva kuti “vanakomana” riri pana Genesisi 3:16 rakanga ragara rakatonzi “vana,” Bhaibheri reChirungu risati radzokororwa muna 2013. Asi pana Eksodho 22:24 shoko iroro rechiHebheru rokuti “vanakomana” rakashandurwa kuti: “Vana venyu vachava nherera.” Zvimwe chete zvakaitwawo pakachinjwa mashoko okuti “mwanakomana asina baba” achinzi “mwana asina baba” kana kuti “nherera.” (Dheut. 10:18; Job. 6:27) Izvozvo zvakafanana nemashandurirwo akaitwa ndima idzi muSeptuagint yechiGiriki. Ndizvo zvakaitawo kuti mashoko ari pana Muparidzi 12:1 ayo ainzi “mumazuva oujaya hwako” anzi “mumazuva ouduku hwako.”

Nei mashandurirwo aiitwa mashoko echiito echiHebheru akaitwa kuti ave nyore kunzwisisa? Mashoko echiito echiHebheru ane mhando huru mbiri. Pane anoratidza chiito chakaitika sekunge kuti chiri kuramba chichiitika, uye anoratidza chiito chisati chaitika sechatoitika. Pakushandura mashoko echiito anoratidza chinhu chakaitika sechiri kuramba chichiitika, Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yaimbowedzera mashoko akadai seekuti “akabva a-.” * Mashoko anosimbisa zvinenge zvichitaurwa akadai seokuti “zvechokwadi,” uye “ndichazviita” aishandiswa muChirungu kubudisa chiito chisati chaitika sechatoitika.

Mushanduro yakadzokororwa ya2013, mashoko ekuwedzera akadaro haana kushandiswa kunze kwekunge paine pfungwa yaida kubudiswa pachena. Somuenzaniso, mushanduro yakadzokororwa makabviswa mashoko ekuti “akatanga kuti,” mukabva  mangonzi “Mwari akati: ‘Chiedza ngachivepo,’” sezvo pasina chikonzero chokusimbisa pfungwa iri muchiHebheru yekuti zvinhu zvakanga zvataurwa naMwari zvakanga zvichiri kuitika. (Gen. 1:3) Asi sezvo zviri pachena kuti pana Genesisi 3:9, Jehovha akadana zita raAdhamu kanoverengeka, vhesi yacho yakasiiwa yakanzi “akaramba achishevedza.” Munzvimbo zhinji, mashoko echiito akashandurwa pachishandiswa mashoko ari nyore, pachibudiswa zvairehwa zvacho pane kutevedzera mataurirwo azvaiitwa muchiHebheru. Izvi zvinobatsira kubudisa pfungwa dzacho pachishandiswa mashoko mashoma uye mapfupi sezvazvakaita muchiHebheru.

Pava nezvitsauko zvakawanda zvakanyorwa senhetembo, kuti zvienderane nemanyorerwo azvakanga zvakaitwa pakutanga

Nei pava nezvitsauko zvakawanda zvakanyorwa senhetembo? Pakutanga, zvitsauko zvakawanda zveBhaibheri zvakanga zvakanyorwa senhetembo. Mumitauro yemazuva ano, nhetembo dzinowanzonyorwa dziine mitsara ine mashoko ekupedzisira kana kuti ekutanga anonzwika zvakada kufanana, asi nhetembo dzechiHebheru dzaiwanzonyorwa dzichifananidza uye dzichisiyanisa zvinhu. Tsinhirano yenhetembo dzechiHebheru yakanga isingabudi nemanzwikiro aiita mashoko asi yainzwika nekukochekedzana kwepfungwa dzinenge dzichibudiswa.

Shanduro yeNyika Itsva isati yadzokororwa, mavhesi ari mumabhuku eBhaibheri aJobho naMapisarema akanga agara akarongwa senhetembo kuratidza kuti paakatanga kunyorwa aifanira kuita zvokuimbwa kana kudetembwa. Manyorero aya anobudisa mashoko anenge achisimbiswa munhetembo yacho uye anobatsira pakuyeuka. Izvi ndizvo zvakazoitwa mumabhuku aZvirevo, Rwiyo rwaSoromoni, uye zvitsauko zvakawanda zvemabhuku ouprofita pakadzokororwa shanduro iyi. Somuenzaniso pana Isaya 24:2, mutsara wega wega une zviri kusiyaniswa, uye mutsara mumwe nemumwe uri kutangira pasiyirwa nemumwe kuti pfungwa yokuti hapana asingazotongwi naMwari ibude. Kuziva kuti ndima idzi dzakanyorwa senhetembo kunobatsira muverengi kuona kuti munyori weBhaibheri akanga asiri kungodzokorora mashoko ake, asi akanga achidetemba achisimbisa mashoko aibva kuna Mwari.

Dzimwe nguva vashanduri vemaBhaibheri akasiyana-siyana havabvumirani kuti ndedzipi ndima dzakanyorwa senhetembo nokuti musiyano uri pakati penhetembo nekumwe kungonyorawo zvako hausi nyore kuona muchiHebheru. Saka zviri kuvashanduri kuti vaone kuti ndedzipi ndima dzinofanira kunyorwa senhetembo mumaBhaibheri avanoshandura. Dzimwe ndima hadzina kunyorwa senhetembo asi mashoko akashandiswa akaita seanowanzoshandiswa munhetembo. Paishandiswawo zvirungamutauro uye fananidzo kuti pfungwa inenge ichitaurwa inyatsobuda.

Shanduro iyi yava nechikamu chiri panotangira bhuku rimwe nerimwe chinoratidza zviri muchitsauko chimwe nechimwe. Chikamu ichi chinotibatsira kuziva kuti ndiani anenge ava kutaura muRwiyo rwaSoromoni sezvo muine mashoko evanhu vakasiyana-siyana.

Kuongororwa kwezvinyorwa zvemutauro wepakutanga kwakabatsira sei? Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yakatanga kubudiswa yakashandurwa kubva pamagwaro echiHebheru evaMasorete uye pamagwaro echiGiriki anoremekedzwa nevakawanda aWestcott naHort. Zvinyorwa zveBhaibheri zvekare zviri kuramba zvichiongororwa, uye kuongorora kwakadaro kuri kuratidza manyorerwo akanga akaitwa mamwe mavhesi eBhaibheri. Zvinyorwa zveGungwa Rakafa zvava kuwanikawo uye zvimwe zvinyorwa zveBhaibheri zvechiGiriki zvakaongororwawo. Vashanduri veBhaibheri vava kukwanisa kuongorora zvinyorwa izvi vachishandisa makombiyuta, saka zvava nyore kuenzanisa mashoko ari muzvinyorwa izvi voona kuti ndeapi anotsigirwa nezvinyorwa zvakawanda. Izvi ndizvo zvakashandiswa neKomiti Inoshandura Bhaibheri reNyika Itsva kuongorora mamwe mavhesi, zvikaita kuti vasarudze kuchinja zvimwe zvinhu.

Somuenzaniso, pana 2 Samueri 13:21, Septuagint yechiGiriki inoti: “Asi akanga asingadi kurwadzisa mwanakomana wake Amnoni, nekuti aimuda sezvo akanga ari dangwe rake.” Kare, Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yakanga isina mashoko iwayo nokuti haawanikwi mumagwaro evaMasoreti. Asi zvinyorwa zveGungwa Rakafa zvine mashoko iwayo, ayo akaiswawo mushanduro ya2013. Izvi ndizvo zvakaitawo kuti zita raMwari ridzorerwe kashanu mubhuku ra1 Samueri. Kuongorora zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki kwakaita kuti marongerwo akaitwa pfungwa dziri pana Mateu 21:29-31 achinje. Saka zvimwe zvinhu zvakachinjwa nemhaka yekuongororwa kwakaitwa zvinyorwa zvekare, kwete nekungoomerera pachinyorwa chimwe chete chechiGiriki.

Izvi zvinongova zvimwe zvezvinhu zvakabatsira kuti Shanduro yeNyika Itsva ive nyore kuverenga uye inzwisiswe nevakawanda vanoiona sechipo chinobva kuna Mwari, uyo anotaura nevanhu vake.

^ ndima 10 Ona New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References, Appendix 3C yakanzi “Hebrew Verbs Indicating Continuous or Progressive Action.”