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Nharireyomurindi  |  Nhamba 6 2017

Nei Kuine maBhaibheri Akasiyana-siyana?

Nei Kuine maBhaibheri Akasiyana-siyana?

Nei mazuva ano kuine maBhaibheri akasiyana-siyana? Unofunga kuti anobatsira here kana kuti anotoita kuti munhu atadze kunzwisisa. Kuziva kuti ndiani akaashandura uye kuti aizviitirei kunogona kukubatsira kuona aungashandisa.

Akanyora Bhaibheri ndiani uye rakatanga kunyorwa riini?

BHAIBHERI REKUTANGA

Bhaibheri rinowanzokamurwa kuva zvikamu zviviri. Chekutanga chine mabhuku 39 ane “mashoko matsvene aMwari.” (VaRoma 3:2) Mwari akafemera varume vakatendeka kuti vanyore mabhuku aya uye vakatora makore anenge 1 100 kubvira muna 1513 B.C.E. kusvikira gore ra443 B.C.E richangoti pfuurei. Mabhuku akawanda akanyorwa muchiHebheru, uye ndosaka tichiati Magwaro echiHebheru, uye anozivikanwa seTestamende Yekare.

Chikamu chechipiri chine mabhuku 27 uye ose ‘ishoko raMwari.’ (1 VaTesaronika 2:13) Mwari akafemera vadzidzi vaJesu Kristu vakatendeka kuti vanyore mabhuku aya uye vakatora makore anenge 60 kubvira munenge muna 41 C.E. kusvikira muna 98 C.E. Akawanda akanyorwa muchiGiriki, uye ndosaka tichiati Magwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, uye anozivikanwa seTestamende Itsva.

Mabhuku aya 66 ndiwo anoumba Bhaibheri, shoko raMwari rakanyorerwa vanhu. Saka chii chakazoita kuti pave nemaBhaibheri akasiyana-siyana? Inzwa zvikonzero zvitatu.

  • Kubatsira vanhu kuti vagone kuriverenga mumutauro waamai.

  • Kubvisa zvikanganiso zvaiitwa nevairikopa, zvoita kuti mashoko acho afanane neaiva muBhaibheri rekutanga.

  • Kushandisa mashoko ari nyore kunzwisisa.

Verenga unzwe kuti zvikonzero izvi zvakashandiswa sei mumaBhaibheri maviri akatanga kushandurwa.

 GREEK SEPTUAGINT

Pachine makore 300 Jesu asati auya panyika, nyanzvi dzechiJudha dzakatanga kushandura Magwaro echiHebheru muchiGiriki. Shanduro iyi yakazozivikanwa seGreek Septuagint. Shanduro iyi yakagadzirirwei? Kuti ibatsire vaJudha vakawanda vakanga vasingagoni kutaura chiHebheru kuti varambe vachiziva ‘zvinyorwa zvavo zvitsvene.’—2 Timoti 3:15.

Septuagint yakabatsirawo mamiriyoni evamwe vanhu vaitaura chiGiriki kuti vazivewo zvinodzidziswa neBhaibheri. Yakavabatsira sei? Purofesa W. F. Howard akati, “Kubvira nechekuma50 C.E, Septuagint ndiyo yakanga yava Bhaibheri reChechi yechiKristu raishandiswa nemamishinari mumasinagogi kuratidza vanhu ‘kubva mumagwaro kuti Jesu ndiye aiva Mesiya.’” (Mabasa 17:3, 4; 20:20) Ndicho chimwe chikonzero chakaita kuti vaJudha vakawanda vapedzisire “vasingachafariri Septuagint,” yakadaro imwe nyanzvi inoongorora Bhaibheri inonzi F. F. Bruce.

Vadzidzi vaJesu pavairamba vachiwana mabhuku eMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, vaibva vaabatanidza neSeptuagint, uye mabhuku ese iwayo ndiwo atava kuti Bhaibheri mazuva ano.

LATIN VULGATE

Makore anenge 300 kubva pakapera kunyorwa Bhaibheri, Jerome, uyo aiva nyanzvi panyaya dzechitendero, akabudisa Bhaibheri rechiLatin uye rakazozivikanwa seLatin Vulgate. MaBhaibheri echiLatin akanga ariko nechekare, saka Jerome akabudisirei rimwe? Aida “kugadzirisa zvinhu zvakanga zvakanganiswa, kubvisa zvakanga zvawedzeredzwa uye kuisa zvakanga zvasiyirirwa,” rinodaro The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Jerome akagadzirisa zvakawanda zvacho. Asi nekufamba kwenguva, vatungamiriri vechechi vakazoita chikanganiso chakakura! Vakati Latin Vulgate ndiro chete Bhaibheri raifanira kushandiswa, uye mutemo uyu wakaramba uchishanda kwemazana emakore! Pane kuti shanduro iyi ibatsire vanhu kunzwisisa Bhaibheri, nekufamba kwenguva hapana kubatsira kwayakazoita nekuti vakawanda vakanga vasingagoni chiLatin zvachose.

 KWAKATANGA KUVA NEDZIMWE SHANDURO

Panguva iyoyo, vamwe vanhu vakaramba vachishandura Bhaibheri, uye rimwe rinonyanya kuzivikanwa nderinonzi Syriac Peshitta rakashandurwa makore ekuma400 C.E. Pakazosvika makore ekuma1300 ndipo pakasimudzirwa basa iri zvekare nechinangwa chekuti munhu anenge wese akwanisewo kuverenga Magwaro mumutauro waanonzwisisa.

Makore ekuma1300 ava kunopera, John Wycliffe wekuEngland akatanga kubudisa Bhaibheri mumutauro wainzwisiswa nevanhu veikoko weChirungu. Nzira yekuprinda yaJohannes Gutenberg yakaita kuti nyanzvi dzeBhaibheri dzikwanise kuprinda uye kuparadzira maBhaibheri mumitauro yakawanda yekuEurope.

MaBhaibheri eChirungu paakatanga kuwanda, vamwe vakatanga kuti hapana chikonzero chekuva nemaBhaibheri akasiyana-siyana emutauro mumwe chete. Mumwe mukuru wechechi ainzi John Lewis wekuma1700 akanyora kuti: “Mamwe mashoko anopedzisira ava echinyakare, saka zvakakosha kuti Shanduro dzekare dzirambe dzichigadziridzwa kuitira kuti dzishandise mutauro unonzwisiswa.”

Mazuva ano, nyanzvi dzeBhaibheri dzava kunyatsokwanisa kuongorora shanduro dzekare. Vanonyatsonzwisisa mitauro yakashandiswa pakatanga kunyorwa Bhaibheri uye vava nezvinyorwa zvekare zveBhaibheri zvakawanikwa munguva pfupi yapfuura. Izvi zvinovabatsira kuziva kuti muBhaibheri rekutanga makanga makanzi kudii.

Saka kuva neshanduro dzemaBhaibheri dzemazuva ano kwakanaka. Kana vanhu vakashandura nemwoyo wekuda kukudza Mwari, shanduro idzodzo dzinogona kutibatsira. Asi mamwe acho anoda kungwarirwa. *

 

^ ndima 24 Verenga nyaya iri muNharireyomurindi yaMay 1, 2008 yakanzi “Ungasarudza Sei Shanduro yeBhaibheri Yakanaka?