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Nharireyomurindi  |  Nhamba 4 2017

MaBhaibheri echiHebheru aElias Hutter

MaBhaibheri echiHebheru aElias Hutter

UNOGONA kuverenga Bhaibheri rechiHebheru here? Zvimwe haugoni, kana kuti pamwe hausati watomboriona. Kunyange zvakadaro, unogona kuwedzera kukoshesa kwaunoita Bhaibheri rako kana ukaziva nezvemumwe murume akadzidza, akararama kuma1500 ainzi Elias Hutter uye ukazivawo nezvemaBhaibheri maviri echiHebheru aakabudisa.

Elias Hutter akaberekwa muna 1553 muGörlitz, guta diki riri pedyo nemuganhu weGermany neCzech Republic uye Poland. Hutter akadzidza mitauro yekuMiddle East paLutheran University iri muguta reJena. Akabva ava purofesa wechiHebheru muLeipzig paaiva nemakore 24. Semunhu aida kusimudzira zvedzidzo, akazotanga chikoro muNuremberg uye ikoko vanhu vaidzidza chiHebheru, chiGiriki, chiLatin, nechiGerman mumakore 4 chete. Panguva iyoyo, hapana chimwe chikoro kana kuti yunivhesiti yaikwanisa kuita izvi.

“KUNAKA KWAKAITA BHAIBHERI IRI”

Peji yekutanga yeBhaibheri rechiHebheru raHutter rakabudiswa muna 1587

Muna 1587, Hutter akabudisa Bhaibheri rechiHebheru, raibva pana Genesisi kusvika pana Maraki. Rakapiwa zita rinobva pana Isaya 35:8 rekuti Derekh ha-Kodesh, zvinoreva kuti “Nzira yeUtsvene.” Manyorerwo ainge akaitwa mavara emuBhaibheri iri akaita kuti mumwe ataure kuti “zvese izvi zvinoratidza kunaka kwakaita Bhaibheri iri.” Asi chaiita kuti Bhaibheri iri rinyanye kukosha ndechekuti raibatsira vadzidzi vechikoro pakudzidza mutauro wechiHebheru.

Kuti uone kuti Bhaibheri rechiHebheru raHutter raibatsira chaizvo, funga nezvezvinhu zviviri zvaiwanzoomera munhu paaidzidza kuverenga Bhaibheri muchiHebheru. Chekutanga, arufabheti yacho inoverengwa uchibva kurudyi uchienda kuruboshwe, uye chechipiri, zvivakashure nezvivakamberi zvinoita kuti zviome kuona mudzi weshoko kana kuti dzitsi. Semuenzaniso, chimbofunga nezveshoko rechiHebheru נפשׁ (ne’phesh), rinoreva kuti “mweya.” Pana Ezekieri 18:4, shoko iri rinotangwa nechivakashure ה (ha), saka rinenge rava kunzi הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh). Kumunhu asinganyatsozivi chiHebheru, shoko rekuti הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) rinogona kuita serakatosiyana zvachose nerekuti נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Kuti abatsire vanhu vaaidzidzisa, Hutter akashandisa unyanzvi pakuprinda kwaakaita Bhaibheri rechiHebheru. Aipirinda mudzi weshoko kana kuti dzitsi rimwe nerimwe nemavara matema-tema. Asi pachivakashure nechivakamberi, aiita kuti mavara acho asave matema-tema. Izvi zvaiitira nyore vanhu vaaidzidzisa kuti vakurumidze kuona dzitsi reshoko rimwe nerimwe rechiHebheru, zvovabatsira  pakudzidza mutauro wacho. Bhaibheri reNew World Translation of the Holy Scriptures​—With References ndozvarakaitawo mumashoko emuzasi anobatsira pakunzwisisa zvinenge zvichitaurwa. * Dzitsi reshoko rechiHebheru kana kuti rechiGiriki rinenge riine mavara matema-tema, uye chivakashure kana kuti chivakamberi chinenge chisina mavara matema-tema. Pikicha iri pano iri kuratidza manyorerwo eBhaibheri rechiHebheru raHutter pana Ezekieri 18:4 uye zvakaitawo Reference Bible pamashoko emuzasi evhesi imwe chete iyoyo.

“TESTAMENDE ITSVA” MUCHIHEBHERU

Hutter akaprindawo inonzi nevakawanda Testamende Itsva, uye yakanga iine mitauro 12. Bhaibheri iri rakabudiswa muguta reNuremberg muna 1599 uye rinowanzonzi nevanhu Nuremberg Polyglot. Hutter aida kuti pavewo neshanduro yechiHebheru inobva pana Mateu kusvika kuna Zvakazarurwa. Akataura kuti kudai kwaiva nenzvimbo yaiwanika Bhaibheri rechiHebheru, “aizobhadhara mari yakawanda” kuti ariwane, asi hapana kwaraiwanika. * Saka akasarudza kumbosiya zvimwe zvese, achibva atanga kushandura Testamende Itsva kubva muchiGiriki kuenda muchiHebheru. Hutter akapedza kushandura Testamende Itsva iyi, mugore rimwe chete!

Testamende Itsva yechiHebheru yaHutter yaibatsira zvakadini? Muna 1891 imwe nyanzvi yechiHebheru yainzi Franz Delitzsch, yakanyora nezveBhaibheri raHutter ichiti: “Hutter akashandisa mashoko airatidza kuti aiva munhu ainzwisisa chiHebheru, uye vashoma pakati pevaKristu vainzwisisa sezvaaiita. Iri iBhaibheri rekuti unogona kuvimba naro kunyange nanhasi, nekuti Hutter ainyatsoshandisa mashoko akakodzera aienderana nezvainge zvichirehwa.”

BHAIBHERI RAKE RAVA NENGUVA RICHIBATSIRA

Hutter haana kupfumiswa neBhaibheri raakashandura, nekuti maBhaibheri ake haana kunyanya kutengwa. Asi Bhaibheri rake rava nenguva richibatsira. Semuenzaniso, Testamende Itsva yake yechiHebheru yakadzokororwa uye yakaprindwa naWilliam Robertson muna 1661 uyewo naRichard Caddick muna 1798. Hutter akashandura mazita ekuremekedza echiGiriki akadai saKyʹri·os (Ishe) naThe·osʹ (Mwari) kuti “Jehovha” (יהוה, JHVH). Izvi aizviita paaiona kuti mashoko acho akatorwa muMagwaro echiHebheru uye pamwewo paaiona kuti paitaura nezvaJehovha. Zvaakaita zvinokosha nekuti maBhaibheri akawanda eTestamende Itsva haana zita raMwari, asi Bhaibheri raHutter rinaro uye rinoratidza kuti zita raMwari rinofanira kudzorerwa muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki.

Pauchaona zita raMwari rekuti Jehovha muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki kana kuti paunotarisa mashoko emuzasi eReference Bible, ibva wayeuka basa rakaitwa naElias Hutter uye maBhaibheri ake echiHebheru.

^ ndima 7 Ona mashoko emuzasi erugwaro rwaEzekieri 18:4 uye Appendix 3B muReference Bible.

^ ndima 9 Kune vamwewo vanhu vakadzidza vainge vashandura Testamende Itsva muchiHebheru. Mumwe wacho ainzi Simon Atoumanos, uye akapedza kushandura Bhaibheri rake munenge muna 1360. Mumwewo ndiOswald Schreckenfuchs aitaura chiGerman, akapedzawo rake muna 1565. MaBhaibheri iwayo haana kumbobvira abudiswa uye haasisiko.

Inzwa zvimwe

Bhaibheri Rinombodzidzisei Chaizvo?

Zita raMwari—Kushandiswa Kwaro uye Zvarinoreva

Zita raMwari rakabviswa mumaBhaibheri akawanda. Nei? Kushandisa zita raMwari kwakakosha here?

UPENYU HWEPABHETERI

Nzvimbo Yekushambadzira Bhaibheri Inokudza Zita raJehovha

Nzvimbo iyi yakavhurwa kumahofisi edu makuru muna 2013. Takagamuchira maBhaibheri akawanda asingachanyanyi kuwanika.