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Nharireyomurindi  |  Nhamba 2 2016

Ndiani Akaisa Zvitsauko Nemavhesi muBhaibheri?

Ndiani Akaisa Zvitsauko Nemavhesi muBhaibheri?

FUNGIDZIRA uri muKristu ari kurarama panguva yevaapostora. Ungano yenyu ichangobva kugamuchira tsamba yabva kumuapostora Pauro. Paunenge uchinzwa tsamba yacho ichiverengwa unobva waona kuti Pauro ari kutora mashoko kubva “muzvinyorwa zvitsvene,” Magwaro echiHebheru. (2 Timoti 3:15) Unobva wati ‘Ndiri kuda kuona paari kutora mashoko iwayo.’ Asi zvinofanira kunge zvaisava nyore kuatsvaga. Nemhaka yei?

MAISAVA NEZVITSAUKO KANA MAVHESI

Chimbofunga kuti “zvinyorwa zvitsvene” zvaivapo panguva yaPauro zvakanga zvakaita sei. Chimwe chacho ndicho chiri kuratidzwa pano. Ichi chikamu chebhuku raIsaya chiri muDead Sea Scrolls. Uri kuonei? Mashoko akangoita mudhadhadha. Haana nyora dzemutauro. Hapana zvitsauko nemavhesi sezvatava nazvo mazuva ano.

Vanyori veBhaibheri vaisakamura mashoko avo kuti ave zvitsauko kana mavhesi. Vainyora mashoko avaiudzwa naMwari kuitira kuti vanhu vanzwe mashoko acho ese, kwete tuzvikamu chete. Handizvo zvaunoita here kana ukagamuchira tsamba inokosha kubva kune mumwe munhu waunoda? Unoverenga tsamba yacho yese, kwete kungoinyobvora-nyobvora.

Asi nemhaka yekuti zvinyorwa zvacho zvainge zvisina zvitsauko kana mavhesi, paiva nedambudziko. Kuti aratidze paaitora mashoko, Pauro haana zvimwe zvaaigona kuita kunze kwekungoti “sokunyorwa kwazvakaitwa,” kana kuti “sokutaura kwakanga kwaita Isaya kare.” (VaRoma 3:10; 9:29) Uye zvainge zvakaoma kuti munhu aone paitorwa mashoko acho kunze kwekunge achinyatsoziva “zvinyorwa zvitsvene” zvose.

Uyewo “zvinyorwa zvitsvene” izvozvo zvaisangotaura nezvenyaya imwe chete yaibva kuna Mwari. Pakazopera gore ra100 C.E., mabhuku ezvinyorwa zvitsvene akanga ava 66. Ndosaka mazuva ano vaverengi veBhaibheri vakawanda vachifara kuti Bhaibheri rine zvitsauko nemavhesi zvinovabatsira pakuenda chaipo pavanenge vachida, sepaitorwa mamwe mashoko naPauro paainyora tsamba dzake.

Saka ungava nemubvunzo wokuti, ‘ndiani akaisa zvitsauko nemavhesi iwayo muBhaibheri?’

NDIANI AKAISA ZVITSAUKO MUBHAIBHERI?

Mufundisi wekuEngland anonzi Stephen Langton uyo akazova Bhishopu mukuru weChurch of England, anonzi ndiye akaisa zvitsauko muBhaibheri. Akaita izvi pakutanga kwemakore ekuma1200, paaiva mudzidzisi paUniversity of Paris muFrance.

Langton asati aberekwa, vaongorori veBhaibheri vakamboedza nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzekukamura Bhaibheri kuva zvikamu zvidiki kana kuti zvitsauko. Izvi zvaiitirwa kuti munhu akurumidze kuwana paaida. Unogona kufungidzira kuti zvaizova nyore sei kuti vatsvage ndima muchitsauko chimwe chete pane kuti vaitsvage mubhuku rese, sebhuku raIsaya rine zvitsauko 66.

Asi izvi zvainetsera pakuti vaongorori vaisiyana pakukamura kwavaiita mashoko eBhaibheri kuva zvitsauko. Somuenzaniso mumwe akakamura Evhangeri yaMako kuva zvitsauko zvinenge 50, kwete zvitsauko 16 zvatiinazvo iye zvino. Panguva yakararama Langton, muParis maiva nevadzidzi vaibva kunyika dzakasiyana-siyana, uye vaiuya nemaBhaibheri aishandiswa kunyika  dzavo. Asi vadzidzisi nevadzidzi vaisakwanisa kuudzana kuti ndima dzavaitaura nezvadzo dzaiwanika papi nekuti maBhaibheri avo ainge akasiyana pakukamurwa kwainge kwakaitwa zvitsauko.

Izvi ndizvo zvakaita kuti Langton atange nzira itsva yekukamura nayo zvitsauko. Nzira yaakashandisa “yakafarirwa nevaverengi nevanyori,” uye “yakatanga kushandiswa chaizvo muEurope,” rinodaro The Book—A History of the Bible. MaBhaibheri akawanda atiinawo mazuva ano akakumurwa kuva zvitsauko pachishandiswa nzira yakatangwa naLangton.

NDIANI AKAISA MAVHESI MUBHAIBHERI?

Makore anenge 300 akazotevera, kumakore ekuma1550, murume wekuFrance ainzi Robert Estienne uyo aizivikanwa chaizvo pakuprinda mabhuku, akaita kuti zvinhu zviwedzere kureruka. Chinangwa chake chaiva chekuti vanhu vafarire kudzidza Bhaibheri. Akaona kuti zvaikosha kuti vanhu vave nemaBhaibheri ane zvitsauko uye mavhesi akakamurwa zvakafanana.

Estienne haasi iye akauya nepfungwa yekukamura mashoko eBhaibheri kuti ave mavhesi. Pane vakanga vatozviita nechekare. Mazana emakore akanga apfuura paiva nevakopi vechiJudha vakanga vatombokamura Bhaibheri rose rechiHebheru rinowanzozivikanwa seTestamende Yekare kuva mavhesi, asi havana kuisa zvitsauko. Asi vaikamura mavhesi aya zvakasiyana-siyana, sezvainge zvamboitwa nevaya vakamboedza kukamura zvitsauko.

Estienne akakamura Magwaro echiKristu echiGiriki anozivikanwa seTestamende Itsva, kuva mavhesi uye akabva aibatanidza neBhaibheri rechiHebheru raitova nemavhesi. Muna 1553 akabudisa Bhaibheri rekutanga rakazara (muchiFrench) raiva nezvitsauko nemavhesi sezviri mumaBhaibheri akawanda mazuva ano. Vamwe vanhu vakatsoropodza zvaakaita izvi vachiti kuisa mavhesi muBhaibheri kunoita kuti zviite sekuti vhesi imwe neimwe inotaura zvayo yega isingabatani nemamwe mavhesi. Asi zvaakaita zvakakurumidza kushandiswa nevamwe vaiprinda Bhaibheri.

KUBATSIRA KWAZVINOITA VADZIDZI VEBHAIBHERI

Kuvapo kwezvitsauko nemavhesi kunobatsira. Izvi zvinoita kuti vhesi imwe neimwe yeBhabheri iite sekuti ine kero yayo. Ichokwadi kuti Mwari haasi iye akafemera vanhu kuti vaise zvitsauko nemavhesi muBhaibheri, uye pamwe pacho mashoko eBhaibheri akakamurwa nepasinganyatsoita. Asi zvitsauko nemavhesi zvinoita kuti zvive nyore kuti tisvike patinenge tichida kuverengera mumwe munhu, sekuva nyore kwazvinoita kuti tiwane mashoko atinenge takamaka mubhuku.

Kunyange zvazvo kukamurwa kwemashoko eBhaibheri kuti ave zvitsauko nemavhesi kuchibatsira, unofanira kuziva kuti chinokosha ndechekuti unzwisise Bhaibheri rose ratakapiwa naMwari. Iva netsika yekuti paunenge uchiverenga vhesi, verengawo mamwe mavhesi anenge ari pamusoro nepasi payo. Izvozvo zvichakubatsira kuti uwedzere kunzwisisa “zvinyorwa zvitsvene, zvinokwanisa kuita kuti uve akachenjera kuti uwane ruponeso.”2 Timoti 3:15.

Inzwa zvimwe

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Pasinei nokuti uri munhu akaita sei, unogona kunzwisisa shoko raMwari riri muMagwaro Matsvene.