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Mukai!  |  Nhamba 6 2017

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Alhazen

Alhazen

UNOGONA kunge usina kumbobvira wanzwa nezvaAbū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. KuEurope nekuAmerica, anozivikanwa saAlhazen, zita rechiLatin rakabva pane rechiArabic rekuti al-Ḥasan. Kunyange usingamuzivi, basa raakaita riri kukubatsirawo. Anonzi ndiye “mumwe wevanhu vanokosha chaizvo panyanzvi dzesainzi.”

Alhazen akaberekwa munenge muna 965 C.E. kuBasra, munyika yava kunzi Iraq. Aifarira zvinhu zvakadai sechemistry, masvomhu, zvekurapa, mimhanzi, physics, nhetembo, kuongorora nyeredzi uye mashandiro eziso. Zvii zvaakaita zviri kutibatsira?

KUVAKA DHAMU PEDYO NERWIZI RWANILE

Pane nyaya yaAlhazen yakambotenderera kwenguva refu. Aida kuvaka dhamu raizochengetedza mvura yemurwizi rwaNile. Asi rakazovakwa muna 1902 kuAswân, patopfuura makore anenge 1 000.

KuEgypt kwaiita mafashamo aikonzerwa nekufashukira kwerwizi rwaNile. Saka Alhazen aida kuvaka dhamu raizochengeta imwe mvura yemurwizi urwu. Mutungamiriri weCairo ainzi al-Hakim paakazvinzwa, akashevedza Alhazen kuEgypt ndokumuti avake dhamu racho. Alhazen paakaona kukura kwerwizi rwacho, akabva aziva kuti aisazvikwanisa. Achitya kuurayiwa nemutungamiriri uyu aiva neutsinye, Alhazen akatanga kunyepedzera kupenga kusvikira pakazofa mutungamiriri wacho papera makore 11, muna 1021. Paaiva muchipatara chevarwere vepfungwa, Alhazen akatowana zvake nguva yakawanda yekuita zvimwe zvinhu zvaaida.

BOOK OF OPTICS

Paakazobuda muchipatara, Alhazen akanga ava kutopedza kunyora bhuku rake rinonzi Book of Optics, iro rinonzi “nderimwe remabhuku anonyanya kushandiswa chaizvo panyaya dzephysics.” Mubhuku iri, akanyora nezveongororo dzaakaita nezvemafambiro  anoita chiedza. Akaongororawo zvakaita ziso uye mashandiro arinoita.

Pakazosvika makore ekuma1200, bhuku iri rakanga rashandurwa kubva muchiArabic kuenda muchiLatin, uye nyanzvi dzekuEurope dzakarishandisawo kwemakore. Zvaakanyora zvakabatsira vanhu vekuEurope vaigadzira magirazi emaziso kuti vakwanise kugadzira telescope nemicroscope.

CAMERA OBSCURA

Zvakaongororwa naAlhazen zvakamubatsira pakugadzira camera obscura. Aka kaiva kaimba kaiva nekaburi kadiki-diki kaipinza chiedza, zvoita kuti zvinhu zviri kunze zvioneke zvakapidiguka pamadziro emukati.

Alhazen ndiye akatanga kugadzira camera obscura

Mumakore ekuma1800, mucamera obscura makazoiswa firimu kuti vagadzire mapikicha ezvinhu zvinenge zvichioneka pamadziro. Ndiyo yakabva yatova kamera yekutanga. Mashandiro aiita camera obscura uye emakamera emazuva ano akafanana nezvinoita ziso. *

MAITIRWO EZVINHU ZVESAINZI

Ongororo dzaAlhazen dzakasiyana nedzevamwe pakuti dzake dzakanga dzakarongeka uye dzakakwenenzverwa. Vakawanda vakararama panguva yake vaisaita izvozvo. Ndiye mumwe wevanhu vakatanga kuongorora zvimwe zvinhu zvaitaurwa nedzimwe nyanzvi kana zvaiva zvechokwadi, uye akanga asingatyi kuramba zvinhu izvozvo kana zvisina umboo.

Vezvesainzi vanotaura kuti: “Ipa umboo pazvinhu zvaunotaura!” Vamwe vanoti ‘maitirwo ezvinhu zvesainzi mazuva ano anobva pane zvaiitwa naAlhazen.’ Izvi ndizvo zvinoita kuti titende basa guru raakaita.

^ ndima 13 Vanhu vekuEurope neAmerica vaisanzwisisa kuti mashandiro ecamera obscura neeziso akafanana kutozosvikira pazvakatsanangurwa naJohannes Kepler kuma1600.