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MUKAI! NHAMBA 6 2016

 ZVAKAITIKA KARE

Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus

MURUME anonzi, Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469-1536) aimboyemurwa chaizvo nevanhu nekuti ainge akadzidza kudarika dzimwe nyanzvi dzaiva kuEurope asi vakazomuti aiva gwara kana kuti mhandu. Akashinga kufumura unyengeri neudzvanyiriri hwaiitwa muchechi yeRoma uye hwaiitwa nevamwe vaida kubudamo. Mazuva ano, anoonekwa semunhu akashanda nesimba kuti achinje zvinoitwa mumachechi kuEurope. Zvii zvaakaita?

ZVAAKADZIDZA UYE ZVAAITENDA

Kuziva kwaiita Erasmus chiGiriki uye chiLatin kwakamubatsira kuti aenzanise maBhaibheri echiLatin, akadai seLatin Vulgate nezvinyorwa zvekutanga zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, izvo zvinonyanya kuzivikanwa seTestamende Itsva. Akanyatsoona kuti vanhu vanofanira kuziva zvinotaurwa neBhaibheri. Saka akabva ati Magwaro Matsvene aifanira kushandurwa mumitauro yaizivikanwa nevakawanda mumazuva iwayo.

Erasmus aida kuti zvinhu zvichinje muchechi yeRoma nekuti aiti vanhu vanofanira kurarama zvinoenderana nechiKristu kwete kungogumira pakuita tutsika twemuchechi tusina basa. Saka vamwe pavakatanga kutsutsumwa vachiti zvinhu ngazvichinje muchechi, Erasamus akabva atanga kufungirwa kuti ndiye akanga ari kufurira vanhu.

Erasmus akashinga kufumura unyengeri neudzvanyiriri hwaiitwa muchechi yeRoma uye hwaiitwa nevamwe vakabudamo

Mumabhuku aainyora, Erasmus akafumura udzvanyiriri hwaiitwa nevakuru vechechi, upenyu hweumbozha hwavairarama uye zvinangwa zvavanapapa vaitsigira hondo. Akanga asingawirirani nevakuru vechechi vaiva neuori vaibhadharisa zvinhu zvakadai sekureurura zvitadzo, kunamata vasande, kutsanya uye kuenda kunzvimbo dzinoera dzechechi. Aisabvumiranawo nekubhadhariswa kwaiitwa vanhu kuti varegererwe zvitadzo uye kumanikidzwa kwavaiitwa kuti vasaroora kana kuroorwa.

 TESTAMENDE ITSVA YECHIGIRIKI

Muna 1516, Erasmus akabudisa Bhaibheri rake rekutanga raiva netsanangudzo reTestamende Itsva muchiGiriki. Akabudisazve rechiLatin raiva netsanangudzo uye rakanga rakasiyana neVulgate. Nokufamba kwenguva akaramba achinatsiridza Bhaibheri rake, uye paakazopedza rakanga rasiyana nekure nezvaiva muVulgate.

Testamende Itsva yechiGiriki yaErasmus

Mumwe musiyano waiva pana 1 Johani 5:7. MuVulgate pavhesi iyi pane mashoko akawedzeredzwa anonzi comma Johanneum ekutsigira dzidziso yenhema yekuti Mwari, Jesu neMweya Mutsvene chinhu chimwe chete. Mashoko acho aiti: “Kudenga kuna Baba, Shoko, neMweya Mutsvene: zvitatu izvi chinhu chimwe chete.” Asi Erasmus haana kuisa mashoko aya paakabudisa maBhaibheri ake maviri eTestamende Itsva nekuti zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zvepakutanga zvaakashandisa zvakanga zvisina mashoko iwayo. Vakuru vechechi vakazomumanikidza kuti awedzere mashoko aya muBhaibheri rechitatu raakazoshandura.

MaBhaibheri akanatsiridzwa aErasmus eTestamende Itsva echiGiriki akabatsira chaizvo pakushandurwa kwemamwe maBhaibheri emitauro yekuEurope. Martin Luther akaashandisa pakushandura Magwaro echiGiriki muchiGerman, William Tyndale muChirungu, Antonio Brucioli muchiItalian, uye Francisco de Enzinas muchiSpanish.

Makore akararama Erasmus zvinhu zvakanga zvisina kumira zvakanaka panyaya dzechitendero, asi Testamende Itsva yechiGiriki yaakabudisa yaidiwa chaizvo nevanhu vakabuda muchechi yeRoma. Erasmus aionekwa semunhu aipandukira Roma asi vanhu pavakazotanga kubuda muRoma, zvakaoneka kuti hapana divi raaitsigira. Akaramba kupindira mumagakava echechi akazomuka. Imwe nyanzvi inonzi David Schaff yakazonyora kuti Erasmus “akafa asina divi raanotsigira panyaya dzechitendero. Vechechi yeRoma vanga vasingakwanisi kuti ndewavo, kunyange vaya vakabuda muRoma vaiti haasi wavo.”