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MUKAI! NHAMBA 5 2016

 ZVAKAITIKA KARE

Aristotle

Aristotle

MAKORE anodarika 2 300 akapfuura, vanhu vakawanda vaishandisa ruzivo rwaAristotle pasainzi uye paphilosophy. Zvaainyora zvaifarirwa uye zvakatoshandurwa mune mimwe mitauro kuti vamwe vatodzidzawo. Purofesa James MacLachlan akati “zvaidzidziswa naAristotle nezvezvinhu zvakasikwa ndizvo zvaishandiswa kuEurope kwemakore anenge 2 000.” Zvimwe zvacho zvakatoshandiswawo nechechi yeRoma, nedzimwe dzakabuda muRoma uyewo nechitendero chechiIslam.

Akaongorora Zvinhu Zvakasiyana-siyana

Aristotle aifarira kuongorora zvenyeredzi, tsika nemagariro, mutauro, mutemo, zvematongerwo enyika, mashandiro epfungwa, nhetembo, biology, magnetism, metaphysics, motion, art, logic uyewo nezvemweya waaiti unofa. Asi anonyanya kuzivikanwa nezvebiology uye zvelogic.

Nyanzvi dzechiGiriki dzaishandisa zvinhu zvadzaiona nemaziso kuti dzitsanangure magadzirirwo akaitwa zvinhu zvakasikwa. Vaitanga nezvinhu zvanga zvagara zvichitozikanwa, uye vaiti kana vakaongorora vachitangira pazvinhu zvinozivikanwa, zvichavabatsira kuti vasazorasika.

Mafungiro aya akavabatsira kunzwisisa zvinhu zvakawanda uye kurongeka kwakaita zvinhu zvakasikwa. Asi sezvo vaingoshandisa maziso pasina michina inovabatsira, zvakaita kuti Aristotle nenyanzvi idzi varasike pane zvimwe zvinhu. Semuenzaniso, vaifunga kuti mapuraneti nenyeredzi zvinotenderera nyika. Makore iwayo vakawanda ndozvavaitofunga. Bhuku rinonzi The Closing of the Western Mind rinoti, “ongororo dzaiitwa dzairatidza  sedzaitsigira zvaifungwa nevaGiriki zvokuti pazvinhu zvose zvakasikwa nyika ndiyo iri pakati.”

Dai mafungiro iwayo asiri echokwadi asina kuzopinda muchechi dai zviri nani.

Chechi yeRoma Yakabvuma Dzidziso dzaAristotle

Kare kuEurope, vaKristu vakanga vava kudzidzisa dzidziso dzaAristotle nekuti vanhu vaiti ndedzechokwadi. Vamwe vanoongorora dzidziso dzechechi yeRoma vakadai saThomas Aquinas (c. 1224-1274) vakatanga kudzidzisa dzidziso dzaAristotle. Saka dzidziso yekuti pazvinhu zvose zvakasikwa nyika ndiyo iri pakati yakabva yatopinda muchechi yeRoma. Vatungamiriri vemachechi akabuda muRoma vakadai saCalvin naLuther, vakabva vazvitorawo vachitoti ndizvo zvinodzidziswa neBhaibheri.—Verenga bhokisi rakanzi “ Havana Kunzwisisa Zvinodzidziswa neBhaibheri.

Vanhu vaifunga kuti dzimwe dzidziso dzaAristotle ndedzechokwadi

Mumwe munyori anonzi Charles Freeman anoti, ‘unotadza kuona musiyano padzimwe dzidziso dzaAristotle nedzeRoma.’ Zvinonzi Aquinas akatendeutsa Aristotle kuti ave muRoma. Asi chokwadi chiripo ndechekuti, “Aquinas ndiye akatotendeutswa naAristotle,” akanyora kudaro Freeman. Uye tinogonawo kuti naiyowo chechi yeRoma yakatendeutswa. Galileo, muongorori wenyeredzi uye nyanzvi yemasvomhu, aiti nyika ndiyo inotenderera zuva, saka akamiswa pamberi pedare achinzi ataure kuti zvaanga aongorora ndezvekunyepa. * Nekufamba kwenguva Aristotle akazoona kuti ruzivo rwesainzi runoramba ruchiwedzera. Dai zviri izvo zvakaitwawo nemachechi!

^ ndima 11 Kuti unzwe zvakawanda nezvaGalileo verenga nyaya inoti, “Galileo’s Clash With the Church” muMukai! yeChirungu yaApril 22, 2003.