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MUKAI! NHAMBA 3 2016

 ZVAKAITIKA KARE

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis

IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS haazivikanwi nevakawanda mazuva ano, asi basa raakaita richiri kubatsira vanhu vazhinji. Akaberekerwa muguta reBuda (rava kunzi Budapest), kuHungary, uye akawana dhigirii rezvekurapa paUniversity of Vienna muna 1844. Paakatanga kushanda semutevedzeri wapurofesa paFirst Maternity Clinic iri paVienna General Hospital muna 1846, Semmelweis akaona zvinhu zvakamuvhundutsa. Inopfuura 13 kubva muzana yevakadzi vakazvitakura vaibatsirwa pachipatara ichi vaifa nechirwere chinonzi childbed fever.

Vanhu vakaita ongororo dzakasiyana-siyana vachitsvaka chinokonzera chirwere ichi asi dambudziko racho harina kupera. Zvose zvavakaedza kuita kuti vaderedze nhamba yevanhu vaifa hazvina kubudirira. Semmelweis akarwadziwa nekuona vanaamai vakawanda vachiyaura kusvika pakufa, zvikamupa shungu dzekutsvaka kuti chii chinokonzera chirwere ichi uye kuti chingadzivirirwa sei.

Pachipatara paishanda Semmelweis paiva nemakiriniki maviri emateneti, asi zvaishamisa ndezvekuti mukiriniki yekutanga ndimo maiva navanaamai vakawanda vaifa. Musiyano waiva pamakiriniki aya ndewekuti vaidzidzira kuti vazova vanachiremba ndivo vaishanda mune yekutanga uye vaidzidzira kuva vananyamukuta vaiva mune yechipiri. Saka sei paiva nemusiyano uyu panhamba yevanhu vaifa? Semmelweis akaongorora chimwe nechimwe chaifungidzirwa kuti ndicho chinokonzera chirwere ichi asi hapana chaakawana.

Gore ra1847 richangotanga, Semmelweis ane zvaakaona zvakamubatsira kuziva chaikonzera chirwere ichi. Jakob Kolletschka, shamwari yake yaaishanda nayo, akapindwa neutachiona pachironda chaakaita achiongorora chitunha achida kuziva kuti munhu wacho afa nei. Utachiona ihwohwo hwakabva hwamuuraya. Semmelweis paaiverenga ongororo yairatidza chakauraya Kolletschka, akaona kuti zvainge zvakada kuti fananei nezvaiwanikwa pavanhu vainge vafa nechildbed fever. Saka  Semmelweis akatanga kuona sekuti utachiona hunobva pazvitunha ndihwo hwaikonzera childbed fever pavakadzi vakazvitakura. Vamwe vanachiremba nevaidzidzira kuzova vanachiremba vaiwanzotanga vaongorora zvitunha vasati vaenda kunoshanda kuwadhi yemateneti. Nekusaziva, vaibva vaparadzira utachiona kumadzimai akazvitakura! Nhamba yevanhu vaifa mukiriniki yechipiri yainge yakaderera nekuti vanhu vaishanda imomo vakanga vasingaiti basa rekuongorora zvitunha.

Semmelweis akabva agadza mutemo wekuti vanhu vageze maoko nemushonga unouraya utachiona (chlorinated lime) vasati vaongorora madzimai akazvitakura. Kubva muna April kusvika pakazopera gore, nhamba yevaifa yakanga yaderera zvinoshamisa kubva pa18.27 muzana kusvika pa0.19 muzana.

“Zvandinodzidzisa zvinobatsira kupedza dambudziko riri muzvipatara zvemateneti, kuti ndichengetedze mudzimai nokuda kwemurume wake, uye amai nokuda kwemwana wavo.”—Ignaz Semmelweis

Havasi vose vakafarira zvakaitwa naSemmelweis. Zvaakawana paaiongorora zvaipesana nezvaifungwa nemukuru wake nezvechirwere chechildbed fever, uye haana kufarira shungu dzaiva naSemmelweis. Semmelweis akapedzisira adzingwa basa muVienna akadzokera kuHungary. Akasvika achinoshanda semukuru wedhipatimendi rinoona nezvemadzimai akazvitakura pachipatara chinonzi St. Rochus chiri kuPest, uye akabatsira kuderedza nhamba yevakadzi vaifa nechildbed fever kusvika pasi pe1 kubva muzana.

Muna 1861, Semmelweis akabudisa bhuku rinonzi, The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever raitsanangura zvaakawana paaiongorora chirwere ichi. Asi vanhu vakatozoona kukosha kwezvaaitaura patopera makore. Kudai vanachiremba vakateerera zvaitaurwa naSemmelweis, dai vanhu vakawanda vasina kufa.

Semmelweis akagadza mutemo wokuti vashandi vepazvipatara paaishanda vatange vageza maoko.—Robert Thom ndiye akadhirowa

Semmelweis akazozivikanwa semumwe wevanhu vakatanga tsika yekushandisa mishonga inouraya utachiona sezvava kuitwa mazuva ano. Ongororo yake yakabatsira kuratidza kuti utachiona uhwo hwusingaoneki nemaziso hunogona kukonzera zvirwere. Zvaakawana panyaya yekuti utachiona hunokonzera sei zvirwere, zvinokosha kupfuura zvakawanikwa nevamwe vose, uye zvichiri kubatsira chaizvo panyaya dzekurapa. Asi makore anopfuura 3 000 izvi zvisati zvazivikanwa, Mutemo waMosesi, uyo wakazonyorwa muBhaibheri, wainge watopa mazano akanaka ekuti vanhu vaifanira kuita sei kana vakabata chitunha.