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MUKAI! MARCH 2013

 ZVAKAITIKA KARE

Plato

Plato

Plato (c. 427-347 B.C.E.) aiva muzivi wechiGiriki ainamata vanamwari venhema. Akaberekerwa muAtene mumhuri yaiva yakakurumbira uye akawana dzidzo yepamusorosoro. Chakaita kuti aite izvi imhaka yevanhu vaiva nomukurumbira vakadai saSocrates nevateveri vaPythagoras, muzivi uye nyanzvi yemasvomhu.

PASHURE pokufamba munzvimbo dziri kuMediterranean uye kuita zvematongerwo enyika kuSirakusi, guta reGiriki muSisiri, Plato akadzokera kuAtene, kwaakanotanga chikoro chouzivi uye chesayenzi chainzi Academy. Chikoro ichi chinonzi ndiyo yunivhesiti yokutanga kuEurope uye chakazova muzinda wokudzidzira svomhu nouzivi.

SEI UCHIFANIRA KUZIVA NEZVENYAYA IYI?

Dzidziso dzaPlato dzakachinja zvikuru dzidziso dzezvitendero zvakawanda kusanganisira dzevanozviti vaKristu, uye vazhinji vacho vanofunga kuti dzidziso idzi dzinobva muBhaibheri nepo zvisiri izvo. Imwe yedzidziso dzaPlato dzakakurumbira ndeyokuti kana munhu akafa ane chimwe chinhu chinobuda maari chinoramba chichirarama kune imwe nzvimbo.

“Panyaya dzinofarirwa naPlato, nyaya yokuti mweya haufi anoifarira chaizvo.”—Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy

Plato aifarira chaizvo nyaya dzine chokuita nokurarama umwe upenyu pashure pokufa. Bhuku rinonzi Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy rinoti, “panyaya dzinofarirwa naPlato, nyaya yokuti mweya haufi anoifarira chaizvo.” Aitenda zvakasimba kuti kana munhu akafa “mweya unobuda” woramba uchirarama, kana munhu wacho aiita zvakanaka mweya wake ‘unokomborerwa asi kana aiita zvakaipa unopiwa chirango.’ *

 ZVAKAFAMBA SEI KUTI DZIDZISO DZAPLATO DZIPARARIRE?

Kwemakore 900 kubvira muna 387 B.C.E. kusvika muna 529 C.E., chikoro chakavhurwa naPlato chainzi Academy chakanga chiine mukurumbira zvikuru. Dzidziso dzaPlato dzakanga dzava kuzivikanwa munyika dzaitongwa neGirisi uye Roma. Mumwewo muzivi wechiJudha ainzi Philo wokuArekizandriya akabvumirana nedzidziso dzaPlato sezvakangoitawo vatungamiriri vakawanda vari muzvitendero zvenhema zvinozviti ndezvechiKristu. Izvi zvakaita kuti dzidziso dzouzivi hwevanhu dzinosanganisira yokuti mweya haufi dzibatanidzwewo mudzidziso dzechiJudha uye dzechiKristu.

“Uzivi hwose hwechiKristu pane pahunoratidza kuti hunobva pauzivi hwechiGiriki kunyanya hwaPlato,” rinodaro The Anchor Bible Dictionary, “uye vamwe vanozviti ndivanachamangwiza vechiKristu . . . vakakodzera kunzi vaKristu vedzidziso dzaPlato.” Enzanisa umboona zvinotaurwa nemabhuku anotevera.

Zvakataurwa naPlato: ‘Parufu, mweya unoparadzana nenyama woenda kunanamwari kwaunonotongwa maererano nezvawaiita. Kana munhu waiita zvakanaka hapana chokutya asi kana waiita zvakaipa unotofanira kutya.’—Plato—Laws, Book XII.

Zvinotaurwa neBhaibheri: Mweya ndiwo munhu wacho kana kuti upenyu hwaainahwo. Mhukawo zvekare mweya. Parufu hapana chinobuda pamunhu chinoramba chiri chipenyu. * Chimboona zvinotaurwa nemagwaro:

  • “Munhu wokutanga Adhamu akava mweya mupenyu.”—1 VaKorinde 15:45.

  • “Mwari akabva ati: ‘Nyika ngaibudise mweya mipenyu maererano nemarudzi ayo, zvipfuwo nezvinokambaira nemhuka dzomusango dzenyika.”—Genesisi 1:24.

  • “Mweya wangu ngaufe.”—Numeri 23:10.

  • “Mweya unotadza—ndiwo uchafa.”—Ezekieri 18:4.

Zviri pachena kuti Bhaibheri haridzidzisi kuti kana munhu akafa mweya wake unoramba uchirarama. Saka imbozvibvunza kuti, ‘Zvandinotenda zvinobva muBhaibheri here kana kuti idzidziso dzaPlato?’

^ ndima 7 Kunyange zvazvo Plato aisimbisa nyaya yokuti mweya haufi, haasi iye wokutanga kudzidzisa nyaya iyi. Nyaya iyi yokusafa kwemweya inotsanangurwa zvakasiyana-siyana asi dzidziso yacho yakanga yatova nenguva refu yapinda muchitendero chenhema kusanganisira zvitendero zvokuIjipiti neBhabhironi.

^ ndima 12 Bhaibheri rinodzidzisa kuti vanhu vakafa vakarara uye vakamirira kuzomutswa. (Muparidzi 9:5; Johani 11:11-14; Mabasa 24:15) Kana kuri kuti mweya womunhu haufi saka hapana chikonzero chokumutswa.